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Energy vs Environment

Speed Limits on Cargo Ships could Cut Pollutants by More than Half

October 29th 2012

Cargo Ship

Putting a speed limit on cargo ships as they sail near ports and coastlines could cut their emission of air pollutants by up to 70 percent, reducing the impact of marine shipping on Earth's climate and human health, scientists have found. Their evaluation of the impact of vessel speed reduction policies, such as those proposed by the California Air Resources board, appears in ACS' journal Environmental Science & Technology. David R. Cocker III and colleagues explain that marine shipping is the most efficient form of transporting goods, with more than 100,000 ships carrying 90 percent of the world's cargo. However, engines on these vessels burn low-grade oil that produce large amounts of air pollution. Because fuel consumption and smokestack emissions increase exponentially with speed, the authors explored how speed limits could reduce pollution. Read more ..


Energy vs Environment

US Shale Gas and Coal Exports Ruling New CO2 Emissions

October 29th 2012

Coal Train

US CO2 emissions from domestic energy have declined by 8.6% since a peak in 2005, the equivalent of 1.4% per year.  However, the researchers warn that more than half of the recent emissions reductions in the power sector may be displaced overseas by the trade in coal. Dr John Broderick, lead author on the report from the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, comments: "Research papers and newspaper column inches have focussed on the relative emissions from coal and gas.

"However, it is the total quantity of CO2 from the energy system that matters to the climate. Despite lower-carbon rhetoric, shale gas is still a carbon intensive energy source. We must seriously consider whether a so-called "golden age" would be little more than a gilded cage, locking us into a high-carbon future."

Professor Kevin Anderson of the Tyndall Centre notes: "Since 2008 when the shale gas supply became significant, there has been a large increase in US coal exports. This increases global emissions as the UK, Europe and Asia are burning the coal instead. Earlier Tyndall analysis suggests that the role for gas in a low carbon transition is extremely limited, with shale gas potentially diverting substantial funds away from genuinely low and zero carbon alternatives" Read more ..


The Race for Solar

Can Solar Cells Exceed 100 Percent Efficiency?

October 28th 2012

Solar Cells

Research shows newly developed solar powered cells may soon outperform conventional photovoltaic technology. Scientists from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have demonstrated the first solar cell with external quantum efficiency (EQE) exceeding 100 percent for photons with energies in the solar range. (The EQE is the percentage of photons that get converted into electrons within the device.)

While traditional semiconductors only produce one electron from each photon, nanometer-sized crystalline materials such as quantum dots avoid this restriction and are being developed as promising photovoltaic materials. An increase in the efficiency comes from quantum dots harvesting energy that would otherwise be lost as heat in conventional semiconductors. The amount of heat loss is reduced and the resulting energy is funneled into creating more electrical current. Read more ..


The Race for Biofuel

'Nanobowls' to Protect Catalysts needed for Better Biofuel Production

October 27th 2012

E85 Pump

It may sound like a post-season football game for very tiny players, but the "nanobowl" has nothing to do with sports and everything to do with improving the way biofuels are produced. That's the hope of a team of scientists from the Institute for Atom Efficient Chemical Transformations (IACT), an Energy Frontier Research Center led by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and including Northwestern University, the University of Wisconsin and Purdue University.

The team is using a layering technique developed for microchip manufacturing to build nanoscale (billionth of a meter) "bowls" that protect miniature metal catalysts from the harsh conditions of biofuel refining. Furthermore, the size, shape, and composition of the nanobowls can easily be tailored to enhance their functionality and specificity. Read more ..


The Race for Solar

Next-generation Anti-reflection Coatings Could Improve Solar Photovoltaic Cell Efficiency

October 27th 2012

Solar Panels

Photovoltaic cell efficiency may soon get a big boost, thanks to next-generation antireflection coatings crafted from nanomaterials capable of cutting down on the amount of light reflected away from a cell's surface.

Materials boasting a "tunable" refractive index have been developed within the past few years, and they show tremendous potential for photovoltaic applications. Professor E. Fred Schubert, of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute's Department of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering, is investigating ways to exploit this newly gained controllability and will present his findings at the upcoming AVS 59th International Symposium and Exhibition, held Oct. 28 - Nov. 2, in Tampa, Fla.

The refractive index is the property of a material that changes the speed of light, and is computed as the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light through the material. Among the most fundamental properties of optical materials, the refractive index determines important optical characteristics such as Fresnel reflection, Bragg reflection, Snell refraction, diffraction, and the phase and group velocity of light.

Air and other gases have a refractive index very close to 1.0, but unfortunately aren't viable for thin-film optoelectronic applications. Among transparent dense materials suitable for use in thin-film optoelectronic applications, magnesium fluoride (MgF2) has the lowest refractive index (n=1.39); no dense materials with a lower refractive index are known to exist. Read more ..


Oil Addcition

Iraqi Oil Could Reshape Global Energy

October 27th 2012

Saudi Oil

The International Energy Agency has reconfirmed what Washington has long suspected: Iraq has the potential to reshape the global energy landscape in the years ahead, thanks to its huge untapped oil reserves.  But whether Baghdad can capitalize on this opportunity is far from clear. The stakes are high—both for the global economy and the country’s future.

Despite decades of turmoil and bloodshed, Iraq is already one of the world’s major oil suppliers. The roughly 3 million barrels a day it pumps make it the world’s third-largest exporter. Consider that Iran, hobbled by Western sanctions, is only producing half as much oil today as Iraq, whose wells are putting out more than twice what they did in 2003, the year of the Iraq War.

Yet by the 2030s, according to the IEA, Iraq may double its current output, leapfrogging energy-powerhouse Russia as the second-largest oil exporter in the world. This is hardly a far-fetched forecast. The country’s proven oil reserves are the fifth largest in the world, its proven gas reserves the thirteenth largest. Its actual rank is likely far higher. Read more ..


The Automotive Edge

Volvo Advances Autonomous Driving in Traffic Jams

October 26th 2012

Traffic Jam

After extensive tests within the 'SARTRE' projects, carmaker Volvo has taken another step towards autonomous driving by demonstrating a new traffic jam assistance system. The system, whereby the car automatically follows the vehicle in front in slow-moving queues up to 50 km/h, will be ready for series production in 2014.


The traffic jam assistance function is an evolution of the current Adaptive Cruise Control and Lane Keeping Aid technology, which was introduced in the all-new Volvo V40 earlier in 2012. The driver activates the traffic jam assistance function by pushing a button. When active, the engine, brakes and steering respond automatically. The Adaptive Cruise Control enables safe, comfortable driving by automatically maintaining a set gap to the vehicle in front, at the same time as the steering is also controlled. "The car follows the vehicle in front in the same lane. However, it is always the driver who is in charge. He or she can take back control of the car at any time," says Peter Mertens, Senior Vice President Research and Development of Volvo Car Corporation. Read more ..


Oil Addiction

Homecoming For A Russian Oil Baron

October 25th 2012

Gennady Timchenko
Gennady Timchenko

Gennady Timchenko has long been the invisible man in Russia's ruling elite -- the Keyser Soze of the "collective Putin." He's a Finnish citizen. He lives in Switzerland. And he denies that he even knows President Vladimir Putin all that well. But Timchenko, who left Russia two decades ago, owns Gunvor, the world's fourth largest oil trading company. At its peak, Gunvor handled approximately a third of Russia's seaborne oil exports, making Timchenko a key player in the country's political-energy complex.
 
And despite his protestations to the contrary, Timchenko is widely rumored to have a KGB past and a long association with Putin. His name shows up on virtually every list of the top officials believed to be part of Putin's informal "politburo." And now, according to Russian media reports, he's coming home. And this has led to a lot of speculation about why, and why now. Explanations from Russian officials, to say the least, were unconvincing. Read more ..

The Race for Alt Fuel

Saudi Arabia Announces Plans For 100 Percent Switch To Renewables

October 24th 2012

Rub al Khali Saudi Empty Quarter

Following plans to transform Mecca into a solar city, an influential member of the Saudi Royal family has announced even more ambitious renewable energy plans for the country. Prince Turki Al Faisal Al Saud, founder of the King Faisal Foundation and one of the state’s top spokesmen, said he wants to the country to switch completely from fossil fuels to renewable energy. The prince admitted that the shift would not be complete in his lifetime (he is 67) but that it will happen.

“Oil is more precious for us underground than as a fuel source,” said Prince Turki Al Faisal Al Saud at conference. “If we can get to the point where we can replace fossil fuels and use oil to produce other products that are useful, that would be very good for the world. I wish that may be in my lifetime, but I don’t think it will be.” He said he wanted the country to invest in alternatives to fossil fuels such as renewables, nuclear and other low-carbon sources of energy. Vast oil reserves could then used to create useful materials such as plastics and polymers, he explained. Read more ..


The Race for Geo-Thermal

MENA Geothermal’s Largest System in the Middle East is Complete

October 24th 2012

MENA Geo-Theral

MENA Geothermal has completed the largest geothermal heating and cooling system in the Middle East and North Africa. Completed in August, 2012, the new and deeply clean energy system at the American University of Madaba (AUM) in Jordan has a total cooling load of 1680 kW and a heating load of 1350 kW, which is enough energy to power both the College of Science and the College of Business.

“It reduces CO2 emissions by 223,638 kg CO2/yr or 47 percent compared with conventional chiller/LPG boiler cooling and heating systems,” the company’s President and Founder Khaled Al Sabawi said the project was constructed using 100 percent local labor and Palestinian engineering and support staff. Construction of the AUM geothermal system began in July, 2010 and involved drilling 420 boreholes in a vertical configuration 100 meters into the ground.

But unlike drilling for shale oil, geothermal energy is considered to be one of the cleanest, most efficient and safest forms of renewable energy, Al Sabawi explains. “The only dangers of geothermal are the same potential dangers associated with any electrical appliance in general, but this is very minimal.” Read more ..


Oil Addiction

Canadian Firm Discovers Oil Field In North Afghanistan

October 24th 2012

Arab Oil Derick

A spokesman for Afghanistan's Mining Ministry, Jawad Omer, has announced that Canadian company Terraseis has located a large oil field in the northwestern part of the country. The site is in the Faryab Province near the border with Turkmenistan.

Omer said more exploration would be done to get an accurate assessment of the size of the oil field. The news comes after the China National Petroleum Corporation started commercial production at an oil field in the neighboring Sar-e Pol Province earlier this week. The news of the oil discovery in Faryab and the start of production in Sar-e Pol has Afghan officials talking about energy self-sufficiency for the country. Northwest Afghanistan is believed to hold vast deposits of oil and natural gas. The Chinese drilling in northern Afghanistan’s Amu Darya basin is part of a 25 year contract with the Afghan government to produce up to 2.25 million barrels of oil by 2014.  Read more ..


Oil Addiction

Stock Prices Take a Hit as Gasoline Prices Drop

October 23rd 2012

Gas prices

Disappointing corporate earnings and continuing worries about Spain's battered economy cut stock prices on key European and U.S. exchanges on October 23.

Crude oil prices also declined. France's CAC-40 and Germany's DAX were down more than two percent in late trading. At one point during mid-day trading in New York, the Dow and the S&P 500 were off 1.7 percent or more.

Analysts say the declines follow weaker than expected earnings from major companies like IBM, FedEx, and McDonald's. Chemical company DuPont said it will cut 1,500 jobs after profits declined sharply. Traders apparently saw the disappointing earning reports as a sign that the economy will slow down, cutting demand for energy. That perception is one reason that oil prices declined in key markets. Read more ..


Russia on Edge

Russia's State Capitalist Empire Aided by BP Sale

October 23rd 2012

Putin Gesticulates

Teymur Huseynov, pf the UK-based Exclusive Analysis firm, said that the “future of Russian oil is dependent on Greenfield projects and Western technology.” This was according to a report released by the political and economic forecasting firm on October 23.

Huseynov said, “At a meeting with President Putin, Rosneft Chairman Igor Sechin reported that Russia's state-run oil major was planning to buy out 100% of BP's Russian joint venture TNK-BP. As a result, BP will end up with $12.3 billion in cash and 19.75% of Rosneft stock, factoring in its already existing 1.25% of the company. Sechin also reported on current negotiations with TNK-BP's Russian shareholders (AAR), which is set to sell out of the company for about $28 billion.”

Huseynov continued, “Russia's new arctic fields are also now open for BP investments. There is consensus in the Kremlin that Russia needs to develop its offshore resources quickly in order to keep oil production levels from declining sharply. Despite the government’s efforts at economic diversification, the oil industry will continue to provide the majority of revenues for the Russian budget and be a critical factor in insuring the stability of the Putin system. We expect BP and Rosneft to sign a strategic agreement on the development of offshore acreage held by Rosneft in Russia." Read more ..


The Transportation Edge

How Highway Bridges Sing – or Groan – in the Rain to Reveal their Health

October 23rd 2012

Golden Gate

A team of BYU engineers has found that by listening to how a highway bridge sings in the rain they can determine serious flaws in the structure. Employing a method called impact-echo testing, professors Brian Mazzeo and Spencer Guthrie can diagnose the health of a bridge’s deck based on the acoustic footprint produced by a little bit of water. Specifically, the sound created when a droplet makes impact can reveal hidden dangers in the bridge. “There is a difference between water hitting intact structures and water hitting flawed structures,” Mazzeo said. “We can detect things you can’t see with a visual inspection; things happening within the bridge itself.”

The study presents a more efficient and cost-effective method to address the mounting safety concerns over bridge corrosion and aging across the U.S. and beyond. While impact-echo testing for bridges is nothing new to engineers, the BYU researchers are the first to use water droplets to produce acoustic responses. Current testing relies on solid objects such as hammers and chains. The idea is to detect delamination, or the separation of structural layers, in a concrete bridge deck. The most common method involves dragging a chain over a bridge and marking spots where dull, hollow sound is produced. However, this method can take hours to carry out for a single bridge and requires lane closures that come with additional complications. Read more ..


The 2012 Vote

Grassley Demands Job Creation Numbers for Obama's Electric Car Grants

October 22nd 2012

Obama Electric Car

Sen. Chuck Grassley (R-Iowa) dared the Obama administration on Thursday to prove that its $2 billion in grants for electric vehicles led to the employment of “thousands of American workers.” Grassley’s comment came after one grant recipient, A123 Systems, filed for bankruptcy this week. A123 Systems made batteries for electric cars, an industry President Obama has touted as a successful government investment during his reelection campaign.

“I’ve asked the administration for a detailed break-down of the job numbers that justify the statement that thousands of American workers are employed as a result of federal grants for electric vehicles,” Grassley said in a statement Thursday. “The public deserves an accurate, current accounting of the numbers that justify the claim of jobs directly related to federal spending.” Grassley said the administration has told his staff it doesn’t have the number of jobs created from the grants.

“The administration says it’s awarded $2 billion in grants to 29 companies involved in the electrification of vehicles, leading to the employment of ‘thousands of American workers,’ ” Grassley said. “This comes after the administration, through the Department of Energy, told my staff it doesn’t verify or update job creation statistics provided by grant and loan recipients.” Read more ..


The Race for High Speed Rail

Amtrak Wins Praise for 110 MPH Train

October 22nd 2012

transit

General Electric (GE) Co.'s transportation department is praising Amtrak for testing running trains at 110 miles per hour this week, saying that the increased speeds were made possible by its technology.

Amtrak ran a test train on a section of its tracks between Joliet and Normal, Ill., with Transportation Ray LaHood, Federal Railroad Administrator Joseph Szabo and Illinois Gov. Pat Quinn (D) among the passengers.

GE Transportation said the higher speeds on the Amtrak line, which will eventually run from Chicago to St. Louis, were made possible by its Incremental Train Control System (ITCS). "We are proud to help introduce the new 110 mph high-speed rail service in Illinois,’’ GE Transportation President Lorenzo Simonelli said in a statement. “GE has had a long and productive partnership with Amtrak, IDOT and FRA and we look forward to deploying this technology in other states to ensure safe, reliable, high-speed service. We are committed to providing the latest technology and products to high-speed rail programs worldwide as an essential part of sustainable infrastructure growth." Read more ..


Oil Addiction

BP Agrees To Sell TNK-BP Stake To Rosneft For $17.1 Billion

October 22nd 2012

Offshore Oil Rig

The British oil company BP has agreed to sell its 50 percent stake in TNK-BP to Russia's Rosneft for $17.1 billion plus 12.84 percent of the shares in Rosneft. BP will use $4.8 billion of the money to purchase an additional 5.66 percent stake in Rosneft from the Russian government, bringing BP's total shares in the Russian firm to 18.5 percent. Russian President Vladimir Putin, who was meeting with Rosneft head Igor Sechin when the deal was announced, said it was not only good news for the Russian energy sector but for "the entire [Russian] economy." Rosneft is also buying the other half of TNK-BP from the AAR consortium of Russian billionaires for $28 billion to become the world's largest publicly traded oil group.

Reuters reported: The first part of the Kremlin-backed agreement announced by Rosneft on Monday folds BP's half of TNK-BP, Russia's third-largest oil company, into Rosneft, in exchange for cash and Rosneft stock in an agreement worth about $27 billion including $12.3 billion of cash and the rest in stock. In stage two, AAR would get $28 billion in cash, but the two deals are independent of each other and the AAR deal is still subject to negotiations, Rosneft said.

Read more ..

After Fukushima

Cosmic Rays Could Assist in Healing Fukushima

October 21st 2012

LAN Lab team-Fukushima

Researchers from Los Alamos National Laboratory have devised a method to use cosmic rays to gather detailed information from inside the damaged cores of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors, which were heavily damaged in March 2011 by a tsunami that followed a great earthquake.

In a paper in Physical Review Letters, researchers compared two methods for using cosmic-ray radiography to gather images of nuclear material within the core of a reactor similar to Fukushima Daiichi Reactor No. 1. The team found that Los Alamos’ scattering method for cosmic-ray radiography was far superior to the traditional transmission method for capturing high-resolution image data of potentially damaged nuclear material.

“Within weeks of the disastrous 2011 tsunami, Los Alamos’ Muon Radiography Team began investigating use of Los Alamos’ muon scattering method to determine whether it could be used to image the location of nuclear materials within the damaged reactors,” said Konstantin Borozdin of Los Alamos’ Subatomic Physics Group and lead author of the paper. “As people may recall from previous nuclear reactor accidents, being able to effectively locate damaged portions of a reactor core is a key to effective, efficient cleanup. Our paper shows that Los Alamos’ scattering method is a superior method for gaining high-quality images of core materials.” Read more ..


The Race for Wind

Largest Palestinian Hospital to Get Wind Power from Europe

October 20th 2012

Wind Farm

Few things are as deadly as a hospital without power, but a new wind turbine is about to blow away one hospital’s fear of losing theirs. The largest of its kind in the Palestinian territories, Al Ahli Hospital provides care to 600,000 Palestinians living in the Hebron district. With 365 regular beds and a capacity for 500 patients in emergency situations, they can’t afford to lose the energy needed to keep people well.

So in 2009, a project was officially inaugurated to incorporate wind energy into the hospital’s generating mix, and the European Union agreed to fund 80 percent of it; now, following years of planning and mapping, a 700 kilowatt wind turbine is about to be installed. It is expected to start generating 40 percent of the hospital’s power by the end of 2012.

What kind of energy does Al Ahli Hospital currently use? “In exact figures, the hospital annual consumption of diesel is about 200,000 liters and when the project runs, half of this will be saved through renewable energy,” according to the EU Neighborhood Info Center (ENPI). Read more ..


The Race for Wind

Wind Credit Uncertainty Dents GE revenues

October 20th 2012

General Electric

The uncertainty surrounding a wind industry tax credit decreased General Electric’s energy infrastructure revenues 5 percent in the third quarter as wind turbine sales dropped, the company said Friday. Overall, GE’s quarterly earnings rose 8 percent. And excluding wind and the impact of foreign-currency exchange, infrastructure orders would have increased 4 percent, GE CEO Jeff Immelt said during the firm’s quarterly earnings call. The 2.2-cent per kilowatt-hour credit for wind power production that Immelt referenced in the call is scheduled to expire Dec. 31. GE’s performance reflected the wind industry’s concerns that letting the credit expire could reverse recent progress.

The American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) said the credit drove much of the industry’s third-quarter growth. Installations of new wind electricity capacity rose by 1,833 megawatts during the quarter, the industry group announced Thursday. Installed capacity has increased 40 percent through the quarter compared with 2011, it said. Read more ..


The Race for Solar

Bahrain Announces First Solar Power Project

October 19th 2012

Rub al Khali Saudi Empty Quarter

Bahrain, a small island country situated near the western shores of the Persian Gulf, has lagged behind other Gulf region countries in developing its clean energy sector. But the ministry of electricity and water affairs is looking to change all of that with the announcement of a new solar energy project in the capital, Manama. The hope is that the new project will be a watershed for the small Gulf Kingdom, an archipelago of 33 islands, to begin to establish alternative energy as a key driver of the country’s energy sector.

While still in its development stage, the project in the Awali Township aims to produce 5MW of power from the utility-scale photovoltaic solar facility. Minister of State for Electricity and Water Affairs Abdul Hussein Ali Mirza said in recent comments that “following a successful implementation of this pilot project, we expect other projects to follow in the near future. Through strategic alliances with technologically advanced partners, NOGA aims to diversify the energy supply sources that will help achieve the goals of Bahrain Vision 2030.” Read more ..


The Race for Solar

Jordan Mandates Domestic Solar Water Heating

October 19th 2012

Solar Water Heater

It’s about time: Regulations come into effect in April 2013 and make solar water heaters obligatory for every new residence (including apartments) sized 150 m2 or greater in Jordan where there is ample sun. Private houses sized a minimum of 250 m2 and office spaces sized a minimum 100 m2 must also comply. Finally Jordan’s rooftops and side yards will capitalize on the nearly 330 days of sunshine that they bask in every year, just as we’ve seen in Turkey, Cyprus, Egypt and Israel.

To help households make the solar switch, the Ministry of Energy and the Jordan River Foundation have teamed up to provide $1.8 million in loans to purchase and install all necessary equipment. In a related measure, Minister of Energy Alaa Batayneh confirmed that new regulations will allow citizens and businesses to sell surplus solar power back to the national grid. This kind of solar power will come from homes and businesses that set up solar voltaic panels as solar hot water heaters use thermal energy to heat water. They don’t create electricity. Read more ..


Oil Addiction

Fuel Economy of New Vehicles Improves Since 2007

October 19th 2012

Traffic Jam

As fuel economy of new vehicles improved 18 percent over the past five years, billions of gallons of gas and billions of pounds of emissions have been saved, University of Michigan researchers say.

Michael Sivak and Brandon Schoettle of the U-M Transportation Research Institute collected fuel data on 61 million new cars, pickup trucks, minivans and SUVs sold in the U.S. since 2007—about a quarter of all light vehicles, both new and used, on U.S. roads today.

Using a recent estimate of the average annual distance driven in the U.S. (about 13,000 miles every year), the researchers found that new vehicles in the last five years saved about 6.1 billion gallons of fuel—equal to about two weeks' worth of gas consumption for all vehicles in the U.S. They also looked at the current monthly savings in fuel use for new vehicles and found that 293 million gallons of fuel were saved in September alone. Read more ..


The Edge of Architecture

Cool Old-New Arabic Building Wins Award

October 18th 2012

Green Building arab-israel

An Arab-Israeli group is recycling traditional Arabic construction techniques for keeping a house cool in summer, warm in winter. In the unrelenting Middle East sun, one thing is very clear when you build a new home: it must work with the elements. Standing the test of time are traditional Arabic buildings that kept families and worshippers cool for centuries, long before air conditioning was invented.

A new “green” teaching and research center in the Israeli-Arab town of Sakhnin showcases some of the best traditional approaches to construction in the hope that it will inspire modern building practices. And on a less concrete level, the building is seen as a “green bridge” between the Arab and Jewish communities. The Union of the Mediterranean recently awarded it first prize in a competition on energy conservation. Read more ..


The Race for Wind

Morocco University Excited Over First Wind-hydrogen System Installation

October 17th 2012

OK Turbine

Morocco’s renewable energy push received yet another boost last week with the installation of the first-ever wind-hydrogen system in Africa. Activists and industry experts are excited that the government is pushing forward on its continued promises to create clean energy for the North African country which aims to be 42 percent reliant on renewables by 2020. ”This is a great initiative and one that we all believe will be a huge success as it can help build on the issues of losing potential energy from renewable sources,” environmental technology consultant Ibrahim bin Abdullah, who has worked with the Moroccan government on wind and solar projects in recent years explained.

The installation by Sahara Wind at Al Akhawayn University, about 70 kilometers from Fes, consists of a wind farm with three turbines and is reportedly capable of generating green energy across the campus. The university said that the inaugural project aims to examine the issue of wind intermittency that leads to an excess power generation that could potentially be resolved. Read more ..


Oil Addiction

Domestic Crude Production Improved Greatly with CO2 Thickener

October 16th 2012

Oil well

Crude oil extraction could be improved significantly and accessible domestic oil reserves could be expanded with an economical CO2 thickener being developed by University of Pittsburgh engineers, thanks to a $1.3 million grant from the U.S. Department of Energy.

Current oil-extraction methods across the United States involve oil being “pushed” from underground layers of porous sandstone or limestone reservoirs using a first-water-then-CO2 method known as the water-alternating-gas method. CO2—which is obtained from natural CO2 reservoirs and pipelined to oil reservoirs—is an ideal candidate for oil extraction given its ability to push and dissolve oil from underground layers of porous rock. However, its viscosity (or thickness) is too low to efficiently extract oil. As such, it tends to “finger” through the oil rather than sweep oil forward toward the production well. This process, “viscous fingering,” results in oil production companies recovering only a small fraction of the oil that’s in a field. Read more ..


Oil Addiction

What’s Driving High Gas Prices in California?

October 15th 2012

Gas

California’s nation-high gas prices are receiving national attention. The price of $4.67 per gallon, an increase of about 50 cents in the past week, is 86 cents higher than the national average.

Representative Henry Waxman (D–CA) and Senator Barbara Boxer (D–CA) are quick to speculate about market manipulation and are calling for the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to investigate the price spike. But markets are working, not manipulating. Several factors are contributing to higher prices in the Golden State, including supply disruptions, tight markets, and government-driven factors such as high state taxes and stringent boutique fuel requirements.

The 50-cent jump in prices is not a result of market manipulation but tight markets. If oil companies and refiners could price gouge and manipulate the market, why wouldn’t they do it all the time? Read more ..


Oil Addiction

Exposure to Prestige' Fuel Causes Short-Term Damage to Rat DNA

October 15th 2012

Gulf oil spill

An experiment carried out on rodents exposed to fuel similar to that of the Prestige tanker oil spill – which took place nearly a decade ago – shows that inhalation of the fuel causes damage to genetic material. According to the study, led by the University of A Coruña, the results could be used in relation to people who carry out the industrial cleaning of coasts.

On 19 November, it will be ten years since the sinking of the Prestige, which caused one of Spain's largest ecological disasters. The oil spill reached the coasts of Galicia and the rest of the Cantabrian coast, right up to the Landes area of France and Portugal. Thousands of people aided in the cleaning of the contaminated beaches and were exposed to the fuel for prolonged periods.

In order to confirm the effects of such exposure on the health of human beings in this and other circumstances, a team of researchers from the University of A Coruña carried out an experiment using two different strains of rat and a respiratory chamber especially designed to create fuel exposure. For two hours a day, five days a week, the animals were exposed to a fuel similar in composition to that of the Prestige oil spill. Read more ..


The Race for Storage

"Nanoflowers’ Store Energy for Solar Cells

October 13th 2012

batteries

Researchers from North Carolina State University have created flower-like structures out of germanium sulfide (GeS) – a semiconductor material – that have extremely thin petals with an enormous surface area. The GeS flower holds promise for next-generation energy storage devices and solar cells. The GeS "nanoflowers" have petals only 20-30 nanometers thick, and provide a large surface area in a small amount of space.

“Creating these GeS nanoflowers is exciting because it gives us a huge surface area in a small amount of space,” says Dr. Linyou Cao, an assistant professor of materials science and engineering at NC State and co-author of a paper on the research. “This could significantly increase the capacity of lithium-ion batteries, for instance, since the thinner structure with larger surface area can hold more lithium ions. By the same token, this GeS flower structure could lead to increased capacity for supercapacitors, which are also used for energy storage.” Read more ..


The Race for Fusion

Promising New Method Developed to Harness Fusion Power

October 13th 2012

Researchers around the world are working on an efficient, reliable way to contain the plasma used in fusion reactors, potentially bringing down the cost of this promising but technically elusive energy source. A new finding from the University of Washington could help contain and stabilize the plasma using as little as 1 percent of the energy required by current methods.

“All of a sudden the current energy goes from being almost too much to almost negligible,” said lead author Thomas Jarboe, a UW professor of aeronautics and astronautics. He presents the findings this week at the International Atomic Energy Association’s 24th annual Fusion Energy Conference in San Diego. The new equipment looks like handles on a coffee mug – except they attach to a vessel containing a million-degree plasma that is literally too hot to handle.

Most people know about nuclear fission, the commercial type of nuclear power generated from splitting large atoms in two. Still under research is nuclear fusion, which smashes two small atoms together, releasing energy without requiring rare elements or generating radioactive waste.

Of course, there’s a catch – smashing the atoms together takes a lot of energy, and scientists are still working on a way to do it so you get out more energy than you put in. The sun is a powerful fusion reactor but we can’t recreate a full-scale sun on Earth. Read more ..


The Edge of Health

Exposure to Trafic Air Pollution in Infancy Impairs Lung Function in Children

October 12th 2012

Traffic Jam

Exposure to ambient air pollution from traffic during infancy is associated with lung function deficits in children up to eight years of age, particularly among children sensitized to common allergens, according to a new study.

"Earlier studies have shown that children are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of air pollution and suggest that exposure early in life may be particularly harmful," said researcher Göran Pershagen, MD, PhD, professor at the Karolinska Institutet Institute of Environmental Medicine in Stockholm, Sweden. "In our prospective birth cohort study in a large population of Swedish children, exposure to traffic-related air pollution during infancy was associated with decreases in lung function at age eight, with stronger effects indicated in boys, children with asthma and particularly in children sensitized to allergens."

The study included more than 1,900 children who were followed from birth through age eight with repeated questionnaires, spirometry and immunoglobulin E measurements. Outdoor concentrations of particulate matter from road traffic were estimated for residential, daycare and school addresses using dispersion modeling, a mathematical simulation of how air pollutants disperse in the atmosphere. Read more ..


The Race for Solar

New Organic Solar Cell Offers High Voltage to Recharge Lithium-ion Battery Directly

October 12th 2012

E-book readers

University of Warwick researchers in collaboration with spin-out company Molecular Solar, have created an organic solar cell that generates a sufficiently high voltage to recharge a lithium-ion battery directly, without the need to connect multiple individual cells in series. The new solar technology development will enable portable electronic devices such as e-book readers to be re-charged on the move in low light levels and partial shading.

Modules of the high voltage cells perform well in different light conditions including partial shade making them well matched to consumer electronic devices such as e-book readers, cameras and some mobile phones. Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells offer new opportunities thanks to the potential for cheap manufacture, lightweight, low profile photovoltaics compatible with flexible substrates, which means they are ideally matched to portable electronic device applications. The new OPV technology is a breakthrough as scientists have addressed the problem of low out-put voltage when the module is in low light levels or partial shading taking an important step towards rolling out cheap OPV cells in low-power portable electronics. The scientists, from the University’s Department of Chemistry, have demonstrated a cell with an open circuit voltage of more than 7 V which delivers maximum power at more than the 4.2 V needed to power a standard lithium ion battery. The scientists claim it is the first time these features have been demonstrated using ultra high voltage OPV cells. Read more ..


The Race for Alt Fuel

America Confronts Fuel Alternatives for Energy Self-Sufficiency

October 11th 2012

Grown from Biofuel

The desire for self-sufficiency has always been a common trait of human society. After all, no one likes to be dependent upon others, especially for vital commodities and services. From a geopolitical perspective, this sentiment is arguably at its strongest when it comes to energy. The Arab Oil Embargo, Russia’s gas supply cutoffs to Europe and Venezuela’s and Iran’s threats to use the ‘oil weapon’ have all reinforced importing nations’ urge for energy self-sufficiency. No country is more preoccupied with this than the United States, where for the past four decades achieving energy self-sufficiency has been the mainstay of Washington’s energy policy.

The only difference between Republicans and Democrats is that the former emphasize supply side solutions (‘Drill Baby Drill’) whereas the latter call for an ‘oil diet’ that uses less oil through taxation or increased fuel economy standards. The result is that the overwhelming majority of Americans believe that energy self-sufficiency will improve national security, alleviate the debt and budget crisis and yield lower and more stable gasoline prices. This worldview is based on myths and poor understanding of how the modern global energy market actually works. True energy security requires both uninterrupted energy supply and affordable prices. In today’s globalized world, energy self-sufficiency guarantees neither. Read more ..


The Race for Natural Gas

Interlinked Energy and Security Challenges in South Caucasus

October 11th 2012

Gas well fire

The recent debate on Georgia’s plans to sell a minority stake in its segment of the North–South gas pipeline, which supplies Russian natural gas to Armenia, is one piece of a larger energy policy puzzle in the South Caucasus region that sheds light on the importance of energy issues and their close interconnections with security dynamics in the region.

The plan to sell the Georgian segment of the North– South pipeline, which connects Mozdok, Tbilisi, and Yerevan, first arose in early 2006, because the poor condition of the pipeline required private investment for reconstruction. The Russian majority state-owned energy company Gazprom hurried to buy the segment. The deal almost had been concluded when the US offered $49.5 million to renovate the pipeline. In return for the US investment, the Georgian government agreed to ban the sale of the pipeline for 5 years, a period which expired in April 2011. In 2010, the issue again returned to the agenda. The Georgian Parliament passed a bill, which removed the pipeline from the list of strategic government-owned facilities and made a sale possible. The US raised no objections to the idea of privatization. Read more ..


The Race for Wind

Wind Turbines Take Steep Toll On Birds And Bats

October 11th 2012

Wind Farm

Wind power is key to efforts to produce clean, limitless energy and to slow global warming. It's one of the world's fastest-growing energy industries. But there is mounting evidence that expanding "wind farms" are taking a toll on airborne wildlife. Thousands of birds and bats are killed every year by collisions with the the wind towers and their giant blades. Environmental activists are taking the wind energy industry to court to find a solution.
 
Estimates by the Department of Energy indicate that in the United States alone, there will be more than 100,000 wind turbines by 2030. John Anderson is policy director at the American Wind Energy Association. “As time goes on, I think you will see wind replacing older plants that are being taken offline, but we are really capturing the new installation market," he said.
 
But wind energy developers, in California and West Virginia, are being sued by environmental groups. A growing number of groups contend that hundreds of thousands of birds and bats are being killed every year by wind turbines, mostly at night when bats and migratory birds fly around mountain ridges where many wind farms are located.  Kelly Fuller, with the American Bird Conservancy, said, “In 2009, an expert at the Fish and Wildlife Service estimated 440,000 birds were being killed by wind turbines a year. That was before we had more growth of the industry.” Read more ..

The Race for Natural Gas

Gasprom Neft Stalls Iraqi Nat Gas Projects

October 10th 2012

Oil Pipes1

Gazprom Neft, the oil arm of Russia's top natural gas producer Gazprom, has frozen two contracts for oil development in northern Iraq’s Kurdistan region, according to Iraqi Oil Minister Abdul Kareem Al-Luaibi.

Gazprom told Iraqi authorities in a letter that they suspended work on the deals with Kurdistan, the minister told International Oil Daily. However, the company’s spokeswoman declined to comment.

However, Russia’s oil major is still interested in Kurdistan crude, "Gazprom Neft is still working on these projects. The company keeps its interest in Kurdistan," a Gazprom Neft source told Reuters.

In August the company signed two production sharing contracts with the Kurdistan Regional Government directly avoiding Iraqi Oil Ministry approval. Under the terms, Gazprom Neft would get a 40% share in the Garmian block and Canada’s WesternZagros will have another 40% share. The second project for Gazprom Neft is an 80% share in the Shakal block where the company will be the operator. The Kurdistan Regional Government will keep a 20% stake in both projects. Read more ..


The Race for Natural Gas

Graphene Membranes may Enhanced Natural Gas Production, Yielding Less CO2 pollution

October 10th 2012

Fracking gas well

Engineering faculty and students at the University of Colorado Boulder have produced the first experimental results showing that atomically thin graphene membranes with tiny pores can effectively and efficiently separate gas molecules through size-selective sieving.

The findings are a significant step toward the realization of more energy-efficient membranes for natural gas production and for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from power plant exhaust pipes. Mechanical engineering professors Scott Bunch and John Pellegrino co-authored a paper in Nature Nanotechnology with graduate students Steven Koenig and Luda Wang detailing the experiments. Read more ..


The Race for Natural Gas

Making Fracking a Greener Proposition

October 9th 2012

Marcellus gas well

Israel’s Flow Industries makes an ‘air gun’ for clearing industrial blockages, and it may also provide a better way to extract shale oil.

Hydraulic fracturing – fracking — is one way to extract valuable shale oil and gases from deep underground by injecting a highly pressurized fluid into rock to pull out the fossil fuel. Those in favor of fracking say that it will help America become energy independent, while growing numbers against it are highly critical of the risks such as groundwater contamination, surface spills and even mini-earthquakes.

An established industrial plumbing company from Israel has a technology that may help bridge the divide between industry and environmentalism when it comes to the fracking debate. With a decade of sales and a clean and green track record in the industrial plumbing business, Flow Industries is looking to help make fracking greener and more efficient. Read more ..


Energy Policy

House Energy Chief Upton Calls to Repeal Both Oil, Green Power Tax Breaks

October 9th 2012

House Energy and Commerce Committee Chairman Fred Upton (R-Mich.) is calling for removal of oil-and-gas industry tax breaks if subsidies for green energy are also eliminated. Upton’s comments, given at a Monday-night debate with Democratic challenger Mike O’Brien, arrive a week after Mitt Romney said billions of dollars in oil industry tax breaks would likely be jettisoned under his proposal to lower the overall corporate tax rate.

“I’m for putting all of these on an even footing,” Upton said. “Let’s look at the oil and gas subsidies, let’s take them away. Let’s let them compete just like everyone else at the same level. We can do that with the tax code to take those special provisions away.”

The Kalamazoo Gazette reported Upton’s comments and provided audio of the remarks here.

Upton bashed the federal loan guarantee for the failed solar energy company Solyndra — the source of a lengthy Energy Committee probe — in arguing that aid for the oil and renewable energy industries alike should be removed. Read more ..


Oil Addiction

Interrupting Iran's Oil: The Price The West Can Now Afford

October 8th 2012

Iranian oil tanker

For many years, it seemed as if the West’s real plan for dealing with the Iranian regime was to talk it to death. Occasionally, a new round of sanctions would be announced, but they were never really very serious sanctions. Sure, they angered their targets in Tehran, but not enough to stop them from doing anything they really wanted to do. The world was willing to pay any price, bear any burden, to stop Iran from getting nuclear weapons. Any price, that is, except the only one which would have made a difference: interrupting the flow of Iranian oil. 

The two sides disliked each other, but they were dependent on each other, so they attacked each other in relatively minor ways in public, while continuing to do business in private.

This latest round of sanctions, however, which included cutting Iran off from the global banking system, has been serious. Turkey has been forced to pay for Iranian oil by physically moving gold bars across the border in trucks, but most buyers have found it easier to simply buy their oil elsewhere. Over the course of the last year, Iranian oil exports have fallen by about 1.5 million barrels a day to under 1 million, less than half their previous level of roughly 2.5 million barrels a day. Read more ..



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