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Oil Addiction

Exposure to Prestige' Fuel Causes Short-Term Damage to Rat DNA

October 15th 2012

Gulf oil spill

An experiment carried out on rodents exposed to fuel similar to that of the Prestige tanker oil spill – which took place nearly a decade ago – shows that inhalation of the fuel causes damage to genetic material. According to the study, led by the University of A Coruña, the results could be used in relation to people who carry out the industrial cleaning of coasts.

On 19 November, it will be ten years since the sinking of the Prestige, which caused one of Spain's largest ecological disasters. The oil spill reached the coasts of Galicia and the rest of the Cantabrian coast, right up to the Landes area of France and Portugal. Thousands of people aided in the cleaning of the contaminated beaches and were exposed to the fuel for prolonged periods.

In order to confirm the effects of such exposure on the health of human beings in this and other circumstances, a team of researchers from the University of A Coruña carried out an experiment using two different strains of rat and a respiratory chamber especially designed to create fuel exposure. For two hours a day, five days a week, the animals were exposed to a fuel similar in composition to that of the Prestige oil spill. Read more ..


The Race for Storage

"Nanoflowers’ Store Energy for Solar Cells

October 13th 2012

batteries

Researchers from North Carolina State University have created flower-like structures out of germanium sulfide (GeS) – a semiconductor material – that have extremely thin petals with an enormous surface area. The GeS flower holds promise for next-generation energy storage devices and solar cells. The GeS "nanoflowers" have petals only 20-30 nanometers thick, and provide a large surface area in a small amount of space.

“Creating these GeS nanoflowers is exciting because it gives us a huge surface area in a small amount of space,” says Dr. Linyou Cao, an assistant professor of materials science and engineering at NC State and co-author of a paper on the research. “This could significantly increase the capacity of lithium-ion batteries, for instance, since the thinner structure with larger surface area can hold more lithium ions. By the same token, this GeS flower structure could lead to increased capacity for supercapacitors, which are also used for energy storage.” Read more ..


The Race for Fusion

Promising New Method Developed to Harness Fusion Power

October 13th 2012

Researchers around the world are working on an efficient, reliable way to contain the plasma used in fusion reactors, potentially bringing down the cost of this promising but technically elusive energy source. A new finding from the University of Washington could help contain and stabilize the plasma using as little as 1 percent of the energy required by current methods.

“All of a sudden the current energy goes from being almost too much to almost negligible,” said lead author Thomas Jarboe, a UW professor of aeronautics and astronautics. He presents the findings this week at the International Atomic Energy Association’s 24th annual Fusion Energy Conference in San Diego. The new equipment looks like handles on a coffee mug – except they attach to a vessel containing a million-degree plasma that is literally too hot to handle.

Most people know about nuclear fission, the commercial type of nuclear power generated from splitting large atoms in two. Still under research is nuclear fusion, which smashes two small atoms together, releasing energy without requiring rare elements or generating radioactive waste.

Of course, there’s a catch – smashing the atoms together takes a lot of energy, and scientists are still working on a way to do it so you get out more energy than you put in. The sun is a powerful fusion reactor but we can’t recreate a full-scale sun on Earth. Read more ..


The Edge of Health

Exposure to Trafic Air Pollution in Infancy Impairs Lung Function in Children

October 12th 2012

Traffic Jam

Exposure to ambient air pollution from traffic during infancy is associated with lung function deficits in children up to eight years of age, particularly among children sensitized to common allergens, according to a new study.

"Earlier studies have shown that children are highly susceptible to the adverse effects of air pollution and suggest that exposure early in life may be particularly harmful," said researcher Göran Pershagen, MD, PhD, professor at the Karolinska Institutet Institute of Environmental Medicine in Stockholm, Sweden. "In our prospective birth cohort study in a large population of Swedish children, exposure to traffic-related air pollution during infancy was associated with decreases in lung function at age eight, with stronger effects indicated in boys, children with asthma and particularly in children sensitized to allergens."

The study included more than 1,900 children who were followed from birth through age eight with repeated questionnaires, spirometry and immunoglobulin E measurements. Outdoor concentrations of particulate matter from road traffic were estimated for residential, daycare and school addresses using dispersion modeling, a mathematical simulation of how air pollutants disperse in the atmosphere. Read more ..


The Race for Solar

New Organic Solar Cell Offers High Voltage to Recharge Lithium-ion Battery Directly

October 12th 2012

E-book readers

University of Warwick researchers in collaboration with spin-out company Molecular Solar, have created an organic solar cell that generates a sufficiently high voltage to recharge a lithium-ion battery directly, without the need to connect multiple individual cells in series. The new solar technology development will enable portable electronic devices such as e-book readers to be re-charged on the move in low light levels and partial shading.

Modules of the high voltage cells perform well in different light conditions including partial shade making them well matched to consumer electronic devices such as e-book readers, cameras and some mobile phones. Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells offer new opportunities thanks to the potential for cheap manufacture, lightweight, low profile photovoltaics compatible with flexible substrates, which means they are ideally matched to portable electronic device applications. The new OPV technology is a breakthrough as scientists have addressed the problem of low out-put voltage when the module is in low light levels or partial shading taking an important step towards rolling out cheap OPV cells in low-power portable electronics. The scientists, from the University’s Department of Chemistry, have demonstrated a cell with an open circuit voltage of more than 7 V which delivers maximum power at more than the 4.2 V needed to power a standard lithium ion battery. The scientists claim it is the first time these features have been demonstrated using ultra high voltage OPV cells. Read more ..


The Race for Alt Fuel

America Confronts Fuel Alternatives for Energy Self-Sufficiency

October 11th 2012

Grown from Biofuel

The desire for self-sufficiency has always been a common trait of human society. After all, no one likes to be dependent upon others, especially for vital commodities and services. From a geopolitical perspective, this sentiment is arguably at its strongest when it comes to energy. The Arab Oil Embargo, Russia’s gas supply cutoffs to Europe and Venezuela’s and Iran’s threats to use the ‘oil weapon’ have all reinforced importing nations’ urge for energy self-sufficiency. No country is more preoccupied with this than the United States, where for the past four decades achieving energy self-sufficiency has been the mainstay of Washington’s energy policy.

The only difference between Republicans and Democrats is that the former emphasize supply side solutions (‘Drill Baby Drill’) whereas the latter call for an ‘oil diet’ that uses less oil through taxation or increased fuel economy standards. The result is that the overwhelming majority of Americans believe that energy self-sufficiency will improve national security, alleviate the debt and budget crisis and yield lower and more stable gasoline prices. This worldview is based on myths and poor understanding of how the modern global energy market actually works. True energy security requires both uninterrupted energy supply and affordable prices. In today’s globalized world, energy self-sufficiency guarantees neither. Read more ..


The Race for Natural Gas

Interlinked Energy and Security Challenges in South Caucasus

October 11th 2012

Gas well fire

The recent debate on Georgia’s plans to sell a minority stake in its segment of the North–South gas pipeline, which supplies Russian natural gas to Armenia, is one piece of a larger energy policy puzzle in the South Caucasus region that sheds light on the importance of energy issues and their close interconnections with security dynamics in the region.

The plan to sell the Georgian segment of the North– South pipeline, which connects Mozdok, Tbilisi, and Yerevan, first arose in early 2006, because the poor condition of the pipeline required private investment for reconstruction. The Russian majority state-owned energy company Gazprom hurried to buy the segment. The deal almost had been concluded when the US offered $49.5 million to renovate the pipeline. In return for the US investment, the Georgian government agreed to ban the sale of the pipeline for 5 years, a period which expired in April 2011. In 2010, the issue again returned to the agenda. The Georgian Parliament passed a bill, which removed the pipeline from the list of strategic government-owned facilities and made a sale possible. The US raised no objections to the idea of privatization. Read more ..


The Race for Wind

Wind Turbines Take Steep Toll On Birds And Bats

October 11th 2012

Wind Farm

Wind power is key to efforts to produce clean, limitless energy and to slow global warming. It's one of the world's fastest-growing energy industries. But there is mounting evidence that expanding "wind farms" are taking a toll on airborne wildlife. Thousands of birds and bats are killed every year by collisions with the the wind towers and their giant blades. Environmental activists are taking the wind energy industry to court to find a solution.
 
Estimates by the Department of Energy indicate that in the United States alone, there will be more than 100,000 wind turbines by 2030. John Anderson is policy director at the American Wind Energy Association. “As time goes on, I think you will see wind replacing older plants that are being taken offline, but we are really capturing the new installation market," he said.
 
But wind energy developers, in California and West Virginia, are being sued by environmental groups. A growing number of groups contend that hundreds of thousands of birds and bats are being killed every year by wind turbines, mostly at night when bats and migratory birds fly around mountain ridges where many wind farms are located.  Kelly Fuller, with the American Bird Conservancy, said, “In 2009, an expert at the Fish and Wildlife Service estimated 440,000 birds were being killed by wind turbines a year. That was before we had more growth of the industry.” Read more ..

The Race for Natural Gas

Gasprom Neft Stalls Iraqi Nat Gas Projects

October 10th 2012

Oil Pipes1

Gazprom Neft, the oil arm of Russia's top natural gas producer Gazprom, has frozen two contracts for oil development in northern Iraq’s Kurdistan region, according to Iraqi Oil Minister Abdul Kareem Al-Luaibi.

Gazprom told Iraqi authorities in a letter that they suspended work on the deals with Kurdistan, the minister told International Oil Daily. However, the company’s spokeswoman declined to comment.

However, Russia’s oil major is still interested in Kurdistan crude, "Gazprom Neft is still working on these projects. The company keeps its interest in Kurdistan," a Gazprom Neft source told Reuters.

In August the company signed two production sharing contracts with the Kurdistan Regional Government directly avoiding Iraqi Oil Ministry approval. Under the terms, Gazprom Neft would get a 40% share in the Garmian block and Canada’s WesternZagros will have another 40% share. The second project for Gazprom Neft is an 80% share in the Shakal block where the company will be the operator. The Kurdistan Regional Government will keep a 20% stake in both projects. Read more ..


The Race for Natural Gas

Graphene Membranes may Enhanced Natural Gas Production, Yielding Less CO2 pollution

October 10th 2012

Fracking gas well

Engineering faculty and students at the University of Colorado Boulder have produced the first experimental results showing that atomically thin graphene membranes with tiny pores can effectively and efficiently separate gas molecules through size-selective sieving.

The findings are a significant step toward the realization of more energy-efficient membranes for natural gas production and for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from power plant exhaust pipes. Mechanical engineering professors Scott Bunch and John Pellegrino co-authored a paper in Nature Nanotechnology with graduate students Steven Koenig and Luda Wang detailing the experiments. Read more ..


The Race for Natural Gas

Making Fracking a Greener Proposition

October 9th 2012

Marcellus gas well

Israel’s Flow Industries makes an ‘air gun’ for clearing industrial blockages, and it may also provide a better way to extract shale oil.

Hydraulic fracturing – fracking — is one way to extract valuable shale oil and gases from deep underground by injecting a highly pressurized fluid into rock to pull out the fossil fuel. Those in favor of fracking say that it will help America become energy independent, while growing numbers against it are highly critical of the risks such as groundwater contamination, surface spills and even mini-earthquakes.

An established industrial plumbing company from Israel has a technology that may help bridge the divide between industry and environmentalism when it comes to the fracking debate. With a decade of sales and a clean and green track record in the industrial plumbing business, Flow Industries is looking to help make fracking greener and more efficient. Read more ..


Energy Policy

House Energy Chief Upton Calls to Repeal Both Oil, Green Power Tax Breaks

October 9th 2012

House Energy and Commerce Committee Chairman Fred Upton (R-Mich.) is calling for removal of oil-and-gas industry tax breaks if subsidies for green energy are also eliminated. Upton’s comments, given at a Monday-night debate with Democratic challenger Mike O’Brien, arrive a week after Mitt Romney said billions of dollars in oil industry tax breaks would likely be jettisoned under his proposal to lower the overall corporate tax rate.

“I’m for putting all of these on an even footing,” Upton said. “Let’s look at the oil and gas subsidies, let’s take them away. Let’s let them compete just like everyone else at the same level. We can do that with the tax code to take those special provisions away.”

The Kalamazoo Gazette reported Upton’s comments and provided audio of the remarks here.

Upton bashed the federal loan guarantee for the failed solar energy company Solyndra — the source of a lengthy Energy Committee probe — in arguing that aid for the oil and renewable energy industries alike should be removed. Read more ..


Oil Addiction

Interrupting Iran's Oil: The Price The West Can Now Afford

October 8th 2012

Iranian oil tanker

For many years, it seemed as if the West’s real plan for dealing with the Iranian regime was to talk it to death. Occasionally, a new round of sanctions would be announced, but they were never really very serious sanctions. Sure, they angered their targets in Tehran, but not enough to stop them from doing anything they really wanted to do. The world was willing to pay any price, bear any burden, to stop Iran from getting nuclear weapons. Any price, that is, except the only one which would have made a difference: interrupting the flow of Iranian oil. 

The two sides disliked each other, but they were dependent on each other, so they attacked each other in relatively minor ways in public, while continuing to do business in private.

This latest round of sanctions, however, which included cutting Iran off from the global banking system, has been serious. Turkey has been forced to pay for Iranian oil by physically moving gold bars across the border in trucks, but most buyers have found it easier to simply buy their oil elsewhere. Over the course of the last year, Iranian oil exports have fallen by about 1.5 million barrels a day to under 1 million, less than half their previous level of roughly 2.5 million barrels a day. Read more ..


The 2012 Vote

Coal Exports could Face Roadblocks if Democrats Maintain Senate Control

October 8th 2012

Coal Train

Companies that want to export coal to Asia could find roadblocks in their path if Sen. Ron Wyden (D-Ore.) becomes chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.

Exporters have identified five ports in Oregon and Washington from which to send coal to Asia. Nations in that region, which have rapidly expanding economies and loose environmental standards, are a coveted destination for coal producers as use of the fossil fuel drops in the United States.

But Wyden, who is expected to replace retiring Sen. Jeff Bingaman (D-N.M.) as committee chairman if Democrats retain the Senate, is skeptical about sending coal abroad. He has called for more rigorous environmental reviews of the process, which many say could hold up coal exports from the Pacific Northwest.

Wyden wants the Army Corps of Engineers to consider the cumulative environmental impact of mining and transporting coal, rather than the current plan of evaluating each proposal individually.

“Senator Wyden believes federal regulators need to take a close look at the economic and environmental impacts of these coal export proposals,” Keith Chu, Wyden’s spokesman, told The Hill. “Oregonians in Morrow and St. Helens and Coos Bay, as well as those in communities along the transportation routes, have a right to know how these developments will affect them, sooner rather than later.”

Much of that coal would come from the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana. Wyden said he is concerned about the impact that concentrated activity could have, and also about coal dust settling in communities along the transportation route. Read more ..


Oil Addiction

The Real Reason Energy Traders Are Losing Sleep

October 7th 2012

Oil Barrels 400px

The oil crises of the 1970s taught Americans one of the iron laws of geoeconomics: that unrest in the Middle East can cause pain at the pump. But almost 40 years later, that law is blinding analysts to some of the most significant sources of market uncertainty -- which are right here at home. True, Iranian bellicosity and broader regional storm clouds are adding froth to oil prices. But even more striking is how much market-churning uncertainty is emanating from Washington and Brussels, rather than Caracas, Baghdad, or elsewhere in OPEC. The ambiguous economic trajectories and fluctuating policies of major energy-consumers like the United States, European Union, and China are proving at least as unsettling to oil prices as any decisions under the control of Middle Eastern officials.

Ask the leaders of OPEC what it's like to control the world oil market right now and they would probably laugh at your premise. Today's market jitters are largely beyond their control. The U.S. Federal Reserve's new open-ended commitment to expanding its balance sheet will likely push up the price of real assets like oil, even as White House chatter about dipping into the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) keeps the markets guessing about a sudden price collapse. Read more ..


Nigeria on Edge

Nigerians Skeptical of Rail Revival Plans

October 6th 2012

Nigeria train

Nigerian leaders have championed the revival of the nation’s rail lines for years. And with a recent boost in infrastructure funding, the leaders say new trains will create jobs and revitalize the economy.  But some analysts say train projects are one of the Nigerian government’s biggest scams and they note that money for rail transportation in the past has disappeared.

This town is only about 30 kilometers outside of Abuja’s posh city center, but it feels like another country.  A few generators rumble in the marketplace because city power hasn’t been on in weeks.  Most stores are unlit, and shopkeepers say they have never had power in their homes. Osa sells bright purses and shoes in a store owned with her fiancé, Kenny.  They’ve heard of the city’s latest rail plan, a project that’s expected to get 500,000 commuters from other parts of the Federal Capital Territory surrounding Abuja into the city center for work everyday by 2015. Read more ..


The Race for Solar

Black Silicon Solar Cells Capture More of the Sun's Energy

October 6th 2012

Rub al Khali Saudi Empty Quarter

The Sun blazes down from a deep blue sky – and rooftop solar cells convert this solar energy into electricity. Not all of it, however: Around a quarter of the Sun’s spectrum is made up of infrared radiation which cannot be converted by standard solar cells – so this heat radiation is lost.

One way to overcome this is to use black silicon, a material that absorbs nearly all of the sunlight that hits it, including infrared radiation, and converts it into electricity. But how is this material produced?

“Black silicon is produced by irradiating standard silicon with femtosecond laser pulses under a sulfur containing atmosphere,” explains Dr. Stefan Kontermann, who heads the Research group “Nanomaterials for Energy Conversion“ within the Fraunhofer Project Group for Fiber Optical Sensor Systems at the Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications, Heinrich-Hertz-Institut, HHI. “This structures the surface and integrates sulfur atoms into the silicon lattice, making the treated material appear black.” If manufacturers were to equip their solar cells with this black silicon, it would signifi cantly boost the cells’ efficiency by
enabling them to utilize the full Sun spectrum. Read more ..


The Race for EVs

Shai Agassi Fired from Better Place Electric Car Company

October 5th 2012

Shai Agassi, former Better Place CEO
Shai Agassi

Israel’s iconic CEO Shai Agassi has been fired from his position at the electric car company Better Place. He will be replaced by Evan Thornley, the current CEO of Better Place Australia. This news comes hot on the tracks of the company’s bold move to finally offer an attractive leasing/charge plan for its electric cars, and battery replacement service for long journies. Shareholders ousted Agassi according to local news reports. In press announcements the company prepared Better Place says that Agassi will continue as a Board member and shareholder in the company he founded.

“Five years ago, I followed my passion to make the world a better place and founded a company to materialize that vision. Very few people are blessed to see such a grand vision become a proven reality within a relatively short time frame,” said Agassi. “I am proud of the Better Place people and the team that I am leaving behind who will take this company to the next chapter.” Read more ..


Brazil on Edge

Role of the Private Sector in Brazil's Chaotic Transport Sector

October 5th 2012

Brazilian airport train

On July 27, a violent truck drivers’ strike occurred in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, which eventually encompassed Brazil’s entire trucking industry. Among other issues, they were protesting the National Agency of Terrestrial Transports’ (ANTT) new highway safety regulations. On the same day, the agency issued measures concerning a significant 2.87 percent price increase in highway tolls. Both controversial decisions reflect not only a strained road infrastructure, but also an urgent need for profound structural improvement in the country’s highway system. The lack of coherence in the region’s trucking industry derives from deep-rooted inadequacies and a lack of government investment. Since 1980, Brazil has witnessed a steady decrease in its public transportation investment, now at only 0.7% of its 2010 GDP. The dearth of appropriate planning and a complex regulatory environment have only amplified this problem.

The operational failures of the Brazilian transportation system have had a detrimental effect on the country’s broader economy. Combined with other concerns including excessive taxes and bureaucracy, the obviously inadequate infrastructure is largely responsible for the colossal lack of competitiveness known as the “custo Brasil” (in English, the “Brazil cost”) that afflicts the country. Brazil’s freight haulage productivity especially suffers from the excessively complex logistics involved in disbursement. In 2007, transport costs represented a gargantuan 13 percent of Brazilian GDP, compared to the United States’ relatively efficient 7 percent. Thus, it costs an average of $1,240 USD to export a container of freight while the same task requires only $990 USD in the United States. This particularly damages the pre-eminent agrifood sector’s performance, therefore multiplying both external and internal prices. Read more ..


Oil Addiction

Why Have U.S. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Plummeted?

October 4th 2012

diesel exhaust

U.S. carbon dioxide emissions for January-May are down six percent from 2011 to 2012. Headlines have highlighted the fact that emissions from January-March hit a twenty year low. What explains the shift?

That question has been the subject of intense debate. John Hanger argues that 77 percent of that decline can be attributed to the shift from coal to gas. The folks over at CO2Scorecard, looking at January-March data, put that number at a more modest 21 percent. These are drastically different figures. What number should we believe?

Part of the discrepancy comes from looking at different time periods. January-March emissions were affected more by the warm winter than April-May ones were. That makes sense because January-March is part of the winter. April-May emissions were affected more by rock bottom natural gas prices than January-March ones were. That makes sense because it was April-May when rock bottom (i.e. sub-two-dollars wellhead) natural gas prices prevailed. Read more ..


The Automotive Edge

Closure of 405 in 2011 Improved Air Quality Up to 83 Percent

October 3rd 2012

Traffic Jam

Take the time to enjoy a deep breath next weekend when the 405 freeway closes for Carmageddon II. If it's anything like last year, the air quality is about to get amazing.

In study findings announced Sept. 28, UCLA researchers report that they measured air pollutants during last year's Carmageddon (July 15) and found that when 10 miles of the 405 closed, air quality near the shuttered portion improved within minutes, reaching levels 83 percent better than on comparable weekends.

Because traffic dipped all over Southern California that weekend, air quality also improved 75 percent in parts of West Los Angeles and Santa Monica and an average of 25 percent regionally — from Ventura to Yucaipa, and Long Beach to Santa Clarita.

The study was led by two professors at UCLA's Institute of the Environment and Sustainability: Yifang Zhu, who is also an associate professor of environmental health sciences at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, and Suzanne Paulson, who is also a professor of atmospheric and oceanic sciences. Read more ..


Oil Addiction

New Material Shows Promise for Oil Spill Cleanups

October 3rd 2012

Gulf oil spill

Scientists are describing what may be a "complete solution" to cleaning up oil spills — a superabsorbent material that sops up 40 times its own weight in oil and then can be shipped to an oil refinery and processed to recover the oil. Their article on the material appears in ACS' journal Energy & Fuels.

T. C. Mike Chung and Xuepei Yuan point out that current methods for coping with oil spills like the 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster are low-tech, decades-old and have many disadvantages. Corncobs, straw and other absorbents, for instance, can hold only about 5 times their own weight and pick up water, as well as oil. Those materials then become industrial waste that must be disposed of in special landfills or burned.

Their solution is a polymer material that transforms an oil spill into a soft, solid oil-containing gel. One pound of the material can recover about 5 gallons of crude oil. The gel is strong enough to be collected and transported. Then, it can be converted to a liquid and refined like regular crude oil. That oil would be worth $15 when crude oil sells for $100 a barrel. Read more ..


The Race for Geothermal

Geothermal Energy Shows Great Promise for Central America

October 3rd 2012

Nesjavellr Geothermal Power plant

Historically, most of Central America’s energy sector began as state-controlled entities that provided a diverse portfolio of domestically sourced energy. However, during the 1980s and 1990s the region began to adopt neoliberal reforms, leading to the privatization of the energy sector and a series of IMF-directed economic transitions, both Structural Adjustment Programs and “shock therapy.” These neoliberal reforms regrettably fostered a flawed privatization process that resulted in a nocuous regional oil-dependency and ineffective energy grid.

The inefficiency of Central America’s energy sector has had far-reaching consequences beyond dependency, including rolling blackouts, rationed electricity, and price spikes at the pump—all of which have social, economic, and political ramifications. During the global energy crisis of 2005, Central American leaders jointly affirmed a state of “maximum alert” in regards to their energy supply. This signified a need for change, and the governments of Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua have since vowed to increase the amount of renewable energy in their nations’ energy portfolios. Read more ..


The Race for Nuclear

Restricting Nuclear Power: Little Effect on Cost of Climate Policies

October 2nd 2012

Nuclear Reactors

Incremental costs due to policy options restricting the use of nuclear power do not significantly increase the cost of even stringent greenhouse-gas emissions reductions.

"Questions have been raised if restricting nuclear energy – an option considered by some countries after the accident in Fukushima, Japan – combined with climate policies might get extremely expensive. Our study is a first assessment of the consequences of a broad range of combinations of climate and nuclear policies," lead author Nico Bauer says. Restrictions on nuclear power could be political decisions, but also regulations imposed by safety authorities. Power generation capacities would have to be replaced, but fossil fuels would become costly due to a price on CO2 emissions, this in sum is the main concern.

"However, in case of restricted use of nuclear power, the flexibility of allocating a long-term carbon budget over time enables higher near-term emissions due to increased power generation of natural gas," Bauer says. Along with demand reductions and efficiency improvements, these provisions could help fill the gap on electricity. The price of natural gas is projected to decrease due to demand reductions, according to the study. Decommissioning existing plants will also avoid refurbishment costs for expanding lifetimes of old nuclear power plants. Read more ..


The Race for Solar

Egypt’s Power Cuts Turn Blackouts Into Green Business

September 30th 2012

Photovoltaic cells

It’s dark at an upscale Cairo café. It’s not closed; service continues despite the only light coming from windows along two walls. The cause was an electricity outage. While it only lasted around 15 minutes, it was one of thousands of power cuts this past summer in Egypt as overuse left many without power for large portions of the day.

Across the river from Cairo’s upscale Zamalek neighborhood lies Imbaba, a lower-class neighborhood, and one of the harder hit areas of the Egyptian capital. “We had some days where we didn’t have power for six hours, sometimes longer,” Hassan Ghozlan, a local resident, stated. And they still continue, he added. “Still, some days it goes out for a few hours, even during the evening when it is cooler,” he added. The government has said that too many air-conditioners are to blame for the cuts. Either way, there is hope for the country’s citizens, as a new project aims to tackle electricity by using alternative power methods. Read more ..


The Race for BioFuel

Scientists Bring Heat to Refine BioFuel Production

September 29th 2012

Cyanobacteria

Perhaps inspired by Arizona’s blazing summers, Arizona State University scientists have developed a new method that relies on heat to improve the yield and lower the costs of high-energy biofuels production, making renewable energy production more of an everyday reality. 

ASU has been at the forefront of algal research for renewable energy production. Since 2007, with support from federal, state and industry funding, ASU has spearheaded several projects that utilize photosynthetic microbes, called cyanobacteria, as a potential new source of renewable, carbon-neutral fuels. Efforts have focused on developing cyanobacteria as a feedstock for biodiesel production, as well as benchtop and large-scale photobioreactors to optimize growth and production. ASU Biodesign Institute researcher Roy Curtiss, a microbiologist who uses genetic engineering of bacteria to develop new vaccines, has adapted a similar approach to make better biofuel-producing cyanobacteria.  Read more ..


The Race for Solar

Could These Egyptian Laser Panels be the Future of Solar Power?

September 28th 2012

Solar Panels

Despite attending Egypt’s Bani-Suef University as a student of commerce, 24 year-old Mohamed Gooda’s passion has always been for science. Having pursued his interest in physics in his spare time, he’s come up with a theoretical method of improving upon the efficiency of the photovoltaic solar cells currently in use the world over. He believes that, if widely implemented, his theory for a new method of converting solar radiation into electricity, using lasers, could afford Egypt a high level of energy independence.

Given that Egypt receives over 3,000 hours of sunlight a year in some regions, it’s not unreasonable to think that a revolutionary new form of solar cell could indeed lead to a radical change in the profile of Egypt’s energy consumption. But just how are these new cells supposed to work?

Whereas a standard photovoltaic solar cells’ functionality depends on the photoelectric effect (also known as the Hertz effect), whereby chemical elements that have ‘easy going’ electrons at their outer electron shell convert luminous energy into electricity, Mohamed’s proposes a different model of generating energy from sunlight. He theorises that it’s possible to generate solar power using a similar method to the stimulated emission of electrons that powers lasers. Read more ..


The Race for Natural Gas

Abu Dhabi Turns to Natural Gas

September 27th 2012

Autogas refueling

The Abu Dhabi Food Control Authority (ADFCA) has converted 20 vehicles in its fleet of 500 to run on compressed natural gas (CNG).  It’s part of their commitment to reduce harmful emissions and their press release says they’ll convert about 20 percent of the total fleet to CNG by the end of 2015.

The switch to alternative fuel is happening in partnership with Al Wathba Central Services, which is providing free training to ADFCA staff who’ll be driving these green machines. A CNG vehicle’s carbon footprint is about 75 percent of that of comparable gasoline fueled wheels.

CNG is pitched as a safer fuel (it’s more difficult to ignite than gasoline); as a fuel that lowers fleet operating costs (less wear on engines than gasoline); and of course, there’s the gentler atmospheric impact. Conversion to CNG brings a 10 – 15 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions over a vehicle’s lifecycle, compared to a gasoline-fueled equivalent.  ADFCA cited recent research indicating that a CNG vehicle engine will emit 80 percent less nitrogen oxides, 80 percent less non-methane organic gases, and up to 70 percent less carbon monoxide. Read more ..


The Race for Wave Power

New Method to Double Energy from Wave Power Being Developed

September 27th 2012

Click to select Image

An Israeli researcher has developed a new method of predicting the shape of oncoming waves in a breakthrough that could double the amount of energy previously collected from wave power. Prof. George Weiss, of Tel Aviv University’s Center for Renewable Energy has created a computer algorithm which, he claims, can substantially improve the functioning of wave energy converters (WEC) used in producing electrical energy from ocean waves.

Like wind and solar power, wave power has enormous potential and is already in use on the East coast of the US, and on the Atlantic coast in Spain.  The unpredictability of the waves, however, which differ in size and force, makes harvesting energy from the sea unstable. WECs consist of two parts, a fixed part often attached to the ocean bed, and an upper part which moves up and down with the motion of the sea. Energy is created by the resistance force between the parts. To function properly WEC’s need to adjust themselves to each oncoming wave, but currently this is something they cannot do. Read more ..


After Fukushima

Japan Plans Restart of Controversial Reactor

September 26th 2012

Fukushima plant worker

There has been an ongoing debate in Japan on the best way to obtain a safe and affordable energy supply for the island nation.  The nuclear option suffered a setback in March, 2011, when a massive earthquake and devastating tsunami caused a meltdown in reactors at Japan's main Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant.

The Japanese government had proposed, but then quickly stepped back from, phasing out all existing nuclear plants by 2040 (with a loophole that under-construction reactors would be able to come online and run for several more decades). The reversal occurred, in great part, because of pressure from powerful business organizations, including major corporations with vested interests in the nuclear industry, that argued expensive imported fossil fuels for conventional plants will hurt Japan's productivity. The lobbying has also forestalled scrapping a controversial, 25-year-old fast breeder reactor on the country's western coast in Fukui prefecture. Read more ..


The Race for Bio-Fuel

Oil-Seed Production Can be Optimized for Bio-Diesel Production

September 25th 2012

oil seed field

Tried-and-true techniques could help optimize oilseed yield for biodiesel production, according to studies conducted by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) scientists.

For more than 30 years, near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been used as a rapid and nondestructive method for measuring protein, moisture, and oil levels in whole grains. Now Agricultural Research Service (ARS) research leader Dan Long is studying how to use remote sensing tools to quickly assess seed oil quality and quantity before and after harvest. ARS is USDA's chief intramural scientific research agency, and this research supports the USDA priority of developing new sources of bioenergy. Read more ..


The Race for Smart Grid

Thermoelectric Material Expected to Convert 15% to 20% of Waste Heat to Useful Electricity

September 25th 2012

Thermoelectric Energy

Northwestern University scientists claim they have developed a thermoelectric material with a figure of merit of 2.2, making it a world's best at converting waste heat to electricity.

The inefficiency of current thermoelectric materials has limited their commercial use. Now, with a very environmentally stable material that is expected to convert 15 to 20 percent of waste heat to useful electricity, thermoelectrics could see more widespread adoption by industry. Possible areas of application include the automobile industry (much of gasoline's potential energy goes out a vehicle's tailpipe), heavy manufacturing industries (such as glass and brick making, refineries, coal- and gas-fired power plants) and places were large combustion engines operate continuously (such as in large ships and tankers). Waste heat temperatures in these areas can range from 400 to 600 degrees Celsius (750 to 1,100 degrees Fahrenheit), the sweet spot for thermoelectrics use. Read more ..


Energy Policy

Senate Energy Efficiency Bill is Toned Down to Suit House Republicans

September 25th 2012

Better Place EV charging

Backers of a Senate energy efficiency bill passed early Saturday said that removing authorizations and new standards were necessary to gain traction in the Republican-controlled House. Sens. Jeanne Shaheen (D-N.H.) and Rob Portman (R-Ohio) got their energy efficiency legislation (S. 1000) through as an amendment to a previously passed House bill, but had to shed much of its weight in the process.

“Our amendment, while not everything we wanted, takes some reasonable and commonsense steps to ensure the federal government is coordinating with industrial manufacturers in developing and deploying industrial efficiency technologies, and places additional energy efficiency requirements on the federal government that will ultimately save money for the U.S. taxpayer,” Portman said in a statement Monday. The amendment was tacked onto H.R. 4850, which would update energy efficiency standards for products ranging from walk-in freezers to covered water heaters. The Senate passed the bill by unanimous consent, which could set it up for either a House floor vote or a conference committee. Read more ..


Iran's Nukes

US to Link Iranian Oil Company, and the Revolutionary Guard

September 24th 2012

Iranian oil tanker

Bloomberg looks at a forthcoming Treasury Department report that’s expected to present evidence that Iran's state-owned oil company is an “an agent or affiliate” of the country's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps. The military unit has been sanctioned for weapons proliferation, terrorism and human-rights abuses, but Treasury “didn’t find sufficient proof to sanction the National Iranian Tanker Co., or NITC, the main carrier for Iranian crude, for ties to the Revolutionary Guard,” Bloomberg reports. The Associated Press reports that “gloomy” economic news dragged down oil prices Monday. AP also reports that the Environmental Protection Agency has named a new top official for its Region 6, which includes Texas, Louisiana and several other states.
Bloomberg reports on efforts by Alaskan officials to export natural gas to Asian markets. Read more ..


The Race for Nuclear

Study Identifies 23 Nuclear Power Plants in Tsunami Risk Areas

September 22nd 2012

Fukushima nuke plant

The tsunami in Japan in March 2011 unleashed a series of negligence related with the resulting nuclear disaster. A scientific study headed by Spanish researchers has for the first time identified those atomic power plants that are more prone to suffering the effects of a tsunami. In total, 23 plants are in dangerous areas, including Fukushima I, with 74 reactors located in the east and southeast of Asia.

Tsunamis are synonymous with the destruction of cities and homes and since the Japanese coast was devastated in March 2011 we now know that they cause nuclear disaster, endanger the safety of the population and pollute the environment. As such phenomena are still difficult to predict, a team of scientists have assessed "potentially dangerous" areas that are home to completed nuclear plants or those under construction.

In the study published in the 'Natural Hazards' journal, the researchers drew a map of the world's geographic zones that are more at risk of large tsunamis. Based on this data, 23 nuclear power plants with 74 reactors have been identified in high risk areas. One of them includes Fukushima I. Out of them, 13 plants with 29 reactors are active; another four, that now have 20 reactors, are being expanded to house nine more; and there are seven new plants under construction with 16 reactors. Read more ..


The Race for Hydrogen

Solid Fuel Type Hydrogen Fuel Cells Deliver High Efficiency With Increased Safety

September 21st 2012

Hydrogen fueling

ROHM has collaborated with Kyoto-based Aquafairy Corp., and Kyoto University to develop compact, lightweight, high-power hydrogen fuel cells designed to power smartphones and other portable devices.

The fuel cells claim to overcome the drawbacks of dry cells, lithium-ion cells, and direct methanol fuel cells, by reducing weight and increasing output power while providing a higher level of safety, making it possible to provide power in places where AC power is not available or cannot be used. Fuel cells can be made smaller, lighter, and more efficient than conventional storage and rechargeable cells, to drive expansion into new markets and applications. Methanol fuel cells have several disadvantages that prevent widespread acceptance. Unlike hydrogen fuel cells, it is difficult to increase power output with methanl fuel cells. Hydrogen fuel cells require the use of cylinders, making them harder to handle and hinder efforts towards greater miniaturization. Read more ..


South Africa on Edge

South African Restaurants Hurt by Climbing Electricity Prices

September 20th 2012

transformer farm

South Africa’s historically low electricity prices have increased dramatically over the last four years, and are expected to continue to do so over the next five. For those in the restaurant business, it means lower profit margins, rising prices and layoffs. The lifeblood of a restaurant is in the kitchen. Inside that backroom, stoves are constantly burning, ovens baking and dishwashers cleaning. In terms of electricity, the meter is always spinning upward and costs are growing quickly.

The price of electricity in Johannesburg has risen by an average of 27 percent each of the last four years.  This year, Eskom - South Africa’s electric utility - raised prices by 16 percent. Similar increases are expected annually over the next five years. "We have made it clear that we will be applying for the above inflation increases because our maintenance costs are going up by more than inflation.  But also we have to be in position to finance the very large new build program that we are in the middle of at the moment," said Hilary Joffe, the spokeswoman for Eskom. Eskom is building new power stations to try to meet rising demand as more and more poor South Africans get on the grid in the post-apartheid era. Read more ..


Energy Politics

Congress Focuses on Energy and Job Losses

September 19th 2012

Wind turbines in cloudy sky

Fresh layoffs in the coal and wind industries are fueling congressional battles over energy policy ahead of the elections. Republicans are seizing on job losses at coal mining giant Alpha Natural Resources as they seek support for legislation to kill, soften or delay various federal rules that affect the coal industry.

The House will vote later this week on the bill, which would upend federal greenhouse gas regulations and other White House policies that Republicans allege are harming the coal industry. The House Rules Committee is slated to meet Wednesday afternoon to vet amendments that could receive floor votes when the bill comes up. A final floor vote on the bill is expected Friday. While Republicans are focusing on coal, Sen. Mark Udall (D-Colo.) says layoffs announced by wind energy equipment maker Siemens shows why lawmakers must extend tax credits for wind projects. Read more ..


The Race for Fusion

Sandia Takes Next Step in Fusion Attempt

September 17th 2012

Scientist

Magnetically imploded tubes called liners, intended to help produce controlled nuclear fusion at scientific "break-even" energies or better within the next few years, have functioned successfully in preliminary tests. To exceed scientific break-even is the most hotly sought-after goal of fusion research, in which the energy released by a fusion reaction is greater than the energy put into it — an achievement that would have extraordinary energy and defense implications. That the liners survived their electromagnetic drubbing is a key step in stimulating further Sandia testing of a concept called MagLIF (Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion), which will use magnetic fields and laser pre-heating in the quest for energetic fusion. In the dry-run experiments just completed, cylindrical beryllium liners remained reasonably intact as they were imploded by huge magnetic field of Sandia's Z machine, the world's most powerful pulsed-power accelerator. Had they overly distorted, they would have proved themselves incapable of shoveling together nuclear fuel — deuterium and possibly tritium — to the point of fusing them. Sandia researchers expect to add deuterium fuel in experiments scheduled for 2013.

"The experimental results — the degree to which the imploding liner maintained its cylindrical integrity throughout its implosion — were consistent with results from earlier Sandia computer simulations," said lead researcher Ryan McBride."These predicted MagLIF will exceed scientific break-even." Read more ..


The Race for Biogas

Israel’s 4 Megawatt Bio-Gas Plant to Clean up After 14,000 Cows

September 16th 2012

Cows

Once it becomes fully operational in the next few months, the recently inaugurated Be’er Tuviya bio-gas plant will scoop up the waste of 14,000 cows and in total roughly 15 percent of all chicken and dairy farms in the country. All that manure will then be used to generate electricity for thousands of homes.

Owned by Eco Energy, the $2.6 million Be’er Tuviya plant is not the first in Israel that will convert the energy of farm animals to biogas, but it is the largest. Inaugurated last Monday, with local and national officials there to celebrate the event, the 4MW facility is expected to provide enough energy to power up to 6,000 homes – giving both the strained national grid. The Be’er Tuviya Regional Council claims that biogas facilities also help to spare the environment by diverting livestock and poultry effluent from waterways and plugging odors, which attract flies. Read more ..



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