The Race for Solar
Heliatek GmbH is claiming a new world record for organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells with cell efficiency on 1.1 cm2. Heliatek commissioned SGS, an accredited and independent testing facility, to measure the efficiency of the company's latest OPV cells.
The key to Heliatek's success is the family of small organic molecules - oligomers - developed and synthesized at its own lab in Ulm, Germany. Dr. Martin Pfeiffer, co-founder and CTO of Heliatek, explained: "Heliatek is the only solar company in the world that uses the deposition of small organic molecules in a low temperature, roll-to-roll vacuum process. Our solar tandem cells are made of nanometers thin layers of high purity and uniformity. This enables us to literally engineer the cell architecture to systematically improve efficiency and lifetime."
The measurement campaign of SGS included efficiency measurements under standard testing conditions (STC) of the solar industry as well as performance measurements at low light and high temperatures of up to 80°C. The test results not only set a new world record for OPV with cell efficiency, but the additional measurements highlight the superior performance of Heliatek's OPV cells under real life conditions. Read more ..
|Michael Bernstein||May 2nd 2012|
American Chemical Society
Scientists are reporting development and successful testing of the first self-propelled "microsubmarines" designed to pick up droplets of oil from contaminated waters and transport them to collection facilities. The report concludes that these tiny machines could play an important role in cleaning up oil spills, like the 2010 Deepwater Horizon incident in the Gulf of Mexico.
Joseph Wang and colleagues explain that different versions of microengines have been developed, including devices that could transport medications through the bloodstream to diseased parts of the body. But no one has ever shown that these devices — which are about 10 times smaller than the width of a human hair — could help clean up oil spills. There is an urgent need for better ways of separating oil from water in the oceans and inside factories to avoid releasing oil-contaminated water to the environment. Wang's team developed so-called microsubmarines, which require very little fuel and move ultrafast, to see whether these small engines could help clean up oil. Read more ..
The Automotive Edge
|Jennifer Judge Hensel||May 2nd 2012|
|University of Michigan concept vehicle|
Can a car really get 3,300 miles to the gallon? The University of Michigan's Supermileage Team is on its way to proving it can—with a lawnmower engine. "We are taking something that is in your backyard and turning it into something that's sleek, modern and high-performance," said mechanical engineering senior Laura Pillari, project manager and co-founder of the team.
The new student team will compete in its first competition this summer, the SAE International Supermileage Challenge, in Marshall, Mich. The competition challenges student teams to design and construct a single-person, fuel-efficient vehicle with a small four-stroke engine. The team's goal this year is to beat the North American record of 3,169 miles per gallon, and to better it by reaching 3,300 mpg. "Fuel efficiency is one of those issues prevalent in society today," said chief engineer and co-founder Brett Merkel, a senior in mechanical engineering. "The technology we're coming up with can have far-reaching effects, and be implemented in just a few years." In fact, that process has already begun. The fuel injection system, designed by mechanical engineering student and team member Lihang Nong for the team's vehicle, is now the focus of a start-up called PicoSpray. Read more ..
The Race for Wind
|Cheryl Dybas||April 30th 2012|
National Science Foundation
Wind turbines interact with atmospheric boundary layer near the surface. Large wind farms in certain areas in the United States appear to affect local land surface temperatures. The study, led by Liming Zhou, an atmospheric scientist at the State University of New York- (SUNY) Albany, provides insights about the possible effects of wind farms. The results could be important for developing efficient adaptation and management strategies to ensure long-term sustainability of wind power. "This study indicates that land surface temperatures have warmed in the vicinity of large wind farms in west-central Texas, especially at night," says Anjuli Bamzai, program director in the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Division of Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences, which funded the research. "The observations and analyses are for a relatively short period, but raise important issues that deserve attention as we move toward an era of rapid growth in wind farms in our quest for alternate energy sources." Read more ..
The Race for Hi-Speed Rail
|Sabina Castelfranco||April 29th 2012|
|Italian High-Speed Rail|
Italy will launch Europe's first private high-speed train service Saturday, as the country moves towards a more liberal economy. The move could lead other European countries to follow Italy's example of privatizing rail transport and creating new jobs and competition in the marketplace.
The new bullet-shaped "Italo" trains can travel at a top speed of 360 kilometers per hour. They are run by NTV, a company headed by Ferrari boss Luca di Montezemolo, which invested $1.3 billion. He says the real achievement was having brought about liberalization in Italian rail transportation. "At last, Italian citizens and foreign travelers will be able to choose, and one of the longest monopolies in our country has come to an end," said Montezemolo. Montezemolo says passengers would benefit from the competition. He adds that the aim is to take a quarter of the market from the state rail network Trenitalia, the biggest employer in the country, by 2014. Read more ..
The Race for Hydro
|Rick Valenzuela||April 28th 2012|
A Thai company says it is going ahead with construction of the controversial $3.5 billion Xayaburi dam on the Mekong River in Laos. Some 12 planned hydropower dams on the Mekong are expected to bring in lucrative profits, but environmentalists warn the dams threaten the health of a river that sustains tens of millions of people. Ek Than's family has lived in this remote Mekong village in northern Kratie, Cambodia, for more than three generations. As dams have popped up in China, as well as on upstream tributaries, he has noticed the difference. "In the past, there were plenty of fish. Now, even if we use 10 fish traps, it's hard to get fish," he said. Than's family lives north of one proposed hydropower dam, in Sambor district. It would be Cambodia's first on the mainstream Mekong - and one of 12 planned along the 3,000-kilometer river. Most remain suspended over environmental concerns, but governments are eager to develop hydropower to boost their economies. Read more ..
The Race For EVs
|Christoph Hammerschmidt||April 28th 2012|
|Charging a Car|
Up to 15 percent more kilometers per battery charge just by improving the energy management systems - this is the goal of a research project led by the Dresden Institute for Automotive Technology. The researchers expressly do not intend to modify or change the battery itself. Instead, intelligent networking of car and infrastructure as well as better management of the in-car energy sinks will be established to reach this goal. The EFA 2014/2 research consortium plans to use forward-thinking energy management to improve the driving range of the cars. The 14 project partners, among them carmaker BMW, tier ones such as Bosch, Continental Hella and Valeo as well as semiconductor companies Elmos and Infineon as well as research institutes FKFS Stuttgart and Technical University of Dresden, will achieve the goal of a better driving range by pursuing several approaches. One is more intelligence with regard to choosing the best route and improving the traffic flow. In order to establish an intelligent infrastructure, the researcher will create an interface enabling the exchange of data between electric vehicles and municipal traffic control centers. Thus, the cars can access information on the traffic situation along the route. The information obtained will be visualized by means of innovative displays at the dashboard. The availability of this kind of information helps the driver to plan time-efficient and energy-saving rides through the city. Read more ..
The Race for Solar
|John Sullivan||April 27th 2012|
Taking their cue from the humble leaf, researchers have used microscopic folds on the surface of photovoltaic material to significantly increase the power output of flexible, low-cost solar cells. The team, led by scientists from Princeton University, reported that the folds resulted in a 47 percent increase in electricity generation. Yueh-Lin (Lynn) Loo, the principal investigator, said the finely calibrated folds on the surface of the panels channel light waves and increase the photovoltaic material's exposure to light. "On a flat surface, the light either is absorbed or it bounces back," said Loo, a professor of chemical and biological engineering at Princeton. "By adding these curves, we create a kind of wave guide. And that leads to a greater chance of the light's being absorbed."
The research team's work involves photovoltaic systems made of relatively cheap plastic. Current solar panels are typically made of silicon, which is both more brittle and more expensive than plastics. So far, plastic panels have not been practical for widespread use because their energy production has been too low. But researchers have been working to increase that efficiency with the goal of creating a cheap, tough and flexible source of solar power. Read more ..
Broken Energy Policy
|Andrew Restuccia and Ben Geman||April 27th 2012|
|Al Armendariz - EPA Region 6 Administrator|
Republicans pounced on April 26 on 2010 comments in which an Obama administration official compared enforcement of environmental laws to crucifixion. The comments by Environmental Protection Agency Region 6 Administrator Al Armendariz gained traction this week after Sen. James Inhofe (R-Okla.), a vocal critic of the administration, highlighted them in a floor speech. Armendariz apologized on April 26, calling the comments “an offensive and inaccurate way to portray our efforts to address potential violations of our nation’s environmental laws.”
But that hasn’t stopped Republicans from using them as a rallying against Obama’s energy and environmental agenda. At least five lawmakers from Louisiana and Texas have called for Armendariz to resign or be fired over the comments. Rep. John Fleming (R-La.), one of the lawmakers, called the comments “enviro-fascism at its worst.” Louisiana is one of the states in EPA's Region 6, along with Texas, New Mexico, Arkansas, and Oklahoma. Other members calling for the EPA official's ouster include Reps. Steve Scalise (R-La.) and Pete Olson (R-Texas). House Speaker John Boehner (R-Ohio) pointed to the comments on Twitter, saying that the “Obama admin admits 'crucify' strategy for energy job creators.”
Texas Gov. Rick Perry (R), whose bid for the GOP White House nomination collapsed months ago, went even further, casting the comments as a reason to get rid of EPA itself. “Another reason to all-but-eliminate EPA. Armendariz equating EPA philosophy to ‘crucifixion,’” he said over Twitter, calling the comments “unacceptable & offensive.” Read more ..
Sudan on Edge
|Martin Barillas||April 24th 2012|
Cutting Edge Senior Correspondent
|Sudanese Pres. Salva Kiir Mayardit (l) and Chinese Pres. Hu Jin Tao (r)|
The president of South Sudan, Salva Kiir Mayardit began a state visit to Beijing on April 23. The Chinese are major supporters of the Sudanese regime of Omar al-Bashir and are heavily invested in petroleum interests in Sudan. While South Sudan continues to struggle to define its boundaries with the Muslim-dominated Sudan to the north, President Kiir hopes to get China's help to improve relations with Khartoum and especially to obtain funds to build an alternative pipeline to the one currently in the hands of Sudan. India, besides China, is also heavily invested in the north.
South Sudan is rich in oil and natural gas. However, it is landlocked and dependent on Sudan - from which it broke away in July 2011 - for downstream services such as pipelines and refineries. The oil wells are in the Christian majority South, while the refineries and infrastructure necessary for the extraction and transportation of crude oil are in the Muslim majority north. On April 10, South Sudan troops invaded the disputed Heglig oil fields just to the north of the disputed border with Sudan. However, his troops have now retreated following intense bombardment by Sudan's air forces and skirmishes between the two countries armies. Troops from Sudan occupied Heglig, but have since pulled back. Read more ..
The Arab Winter in Egypt
|Simon Henderson and David Schenker||April 23rd 2012|
|Egyptian Gas Pipeline After Attack|
Yesterday's predictable but still surprising announcement that Egypt's state-run gas company has cancelled its natural gas supply contract with Israel is of immediate concern to Washington, not only because it may affect the peace treaty between the two countries, but also because it could increase the likelihood of vexatious disputes in the development of Eastern Mediterranean gas reserves.
Egypt's supply of oil and, later, natural gas to Israel is considered one of the foundations of the 1979 Camp David Accords. Although a commercial contract, the gas deal is covered by a 2005 memorandum of understanding between the two governments, which notes that the supply arrangement -- slated for an initial period of fifteen years -- "will contribute to enhancing peace and stability in the Middle East." Under the memorandum's terms, Cairo "guarantees the continuous and uninterrupted supply" of gas. But the deal has long been contentious in Egypt among liberals and Islamists alike -- one of the charges that deposed president Hosni Mubarak is facing alleges corruption in the contract. The deal's cancellation, reportedly on the grounds of Israel not paying for supplies, has been welcomed across the Egyptian political spectrum. Read more ..
The Race for Biofuel
As biofuel production has increased – particularly ethanol derived from corn – a hotly contested competition for feedstock supplies has emerged between the agricultural grain markets and biofuel refineries. This competition has sparked concern for the more fundamental issue of allocating limited farmland resources, which has far-reaching implications for food security, energy security and environmental sustainability.
Numerous studies of land use, food prices, environmental impact and more have fed the so-called “food versus fuel” debate. However, according to new models created by University of Illinois researchers, most studies so far have overlooked a key factor: selfish and possibly competing interests of the biofuel industry and individual farmers, who independently seek the most profit from their crops.
“We looked at competition among farmers and between the refinery and the food market and put them into one model to optimize the whole system,” said Yanfeng Ouyang, a professor of civil and environmental engineering. “A lot of researchers now working on biofuel supply chain optimization have not been able to develop a holistic model that can address such complex interactions among multiple stakeholders in a comprehensive framework.” Read more ..
Sudan on Edge
|Sylvie Guinsbourg||April 22nd 2012|
The border region between the two Sudans remains volatile after the south's withdrawal from the flashpoint town of Heglig, an oil-producing area claimed by both countries along their shared border.
There are reports that Sudan's armed forces continued air raids inside South Sudan on April 22, despite the south's withdrawal from Heglig on April 20.
The showdown over Heglig and its lucrative oil fields had raised fears the two countries could be on the verge of a full-scale war, less than ten months after South Sudan formally split from the north.
Residents in South Sudan's town of Bentiu told VOA News they live in fear because of continued air attacks by Sudan. Meanwhile, convoys of the south's Sudan Peoples Liberation Army were seen traveling toward the northern border late on April 21. Read more ..
|Sonia Fernandez||April 21st 2012|
On the second anniversary of the Deepwater Horizon oil platform blowout, a national panel of researchers is providing new insight into what happened in the disaster, as well as a guide for how to deal with such events in the future, and why existing tools were inadequate to predict what lay before them. The study, produced by the Gulf Oil Spill Ecotox Working Group at UC Santa Barbara's National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS), is published in the May issue of the journal Bioscience. It is titled, "A Tale of Two Spills: Novel Science and Policy Implications of an Emerging New Oil Spill Model."
"The old model assumed that oil would simply float up to the surface and accumulate there and along the coastline," said co-author Sean Anderson, an associate professor at California State University Channel Islands. "That model works well for pipeline breaks and tanker ruptures, but it is inadequate for this novel type of deep blowout."
The 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was unlike any oil spill science and society had encountered. The blowout occurred at unprecedented depths and released enormous quantities of oil (an estimated 4.9 billion barrels, or 206 million gallons). Marine and wildlife habitats suffered major damage, and, according to authors, the damage continues to happen today, out of sight. Local and regional economies and livelihoods suffered as well.
According to the researchers — a renowned group of ecotoxicologists, oceanographers, and ecologists who convened under the auspices of NCEAS while the spill was still active — the response to clean up and contain the oil followed a framework that assumed the oil's behavior would mimic the more familiar shallow-water and surface spills, despite the fact that the dynamics, fate, and effect of deep-water oil on ecosystems are not understood. "As the Deepwater Horizon spill unfolded, you would hear folks saying things like, 'We all know what happens when oil and water mix; the oil floats.' That wasn't the whole story, and that assumptions and actions that were not the best possible use of our time and effort," said Anderson. Read more ..
The Race For Batteries
|Julien Happich||April 19th 2012|
|Lithium Car Battery|
From smartphones to e-bikes, the number of mobile electronic devices is steadily growing around the world. As a result, there is an increased need for batteries that are small and light, yet powerful.
As the potential for the further improvement of lithium-ion batteries is nearly exhausted, experts are now turning to a new and promising power storage device: lithium-sulfur batteries. In an important step toward the further development of this type of battery, a team led by Professor Thomas Bein of LMU Munich and Linda Nazar of Waterloo University in Canada has developed porous carbon nanoparticles that utilize sulfurmolecules to achieve the greatest possible efficiency. In prototypes of the lithium-sulfur battery, lithium ions are exchanged between lithium- and sulfur-carbon electrodes. The sulfur plays a special role in this system: Under optimal circumstances, it can absorb two lithium ions per sulfur atom. It is therefore an excellent energy storage material due to its low weight. At the same time, sulfur is a poor conductor, meaning that electrons can only be transported with great difficulty during charging and discharging. Read more ..
The Race for Wind
|Susan Kraemer||April 17th 2012|
Turkey’s massive wind resource has long been recognized. Now China’s wind giant Sinovel has signed an agreement to supply turbines to build 600 MW of wind projects in Turkey, in what could be the company’s largest overseas deal to date.
In the deal sealed this week in Beijing when Turkish prime minister Tayyip Erdogan visited China’s capital, not only will China supply the turbines, but the lions share of the financing as well: 60% will be provided by China Development Bank.
Rather than a single large wind farm, the deal would be split up into more than 10 smaller projects, but the turbines would be Sinovel’s 1.5 MW, 3 MW and 3.6 MW, according to Li Lecheng, senior vice president at Sinovel.
The first of the Turkish wind farms would be completed by the end of this year, continuing an a acceleration in wind development in the country, which grew from just 147 MW in 2007, to 2,000 MW (2 GW) by the end of 2011, according to Leonardo Energy, and Turkey aims to increase this tenfold to 20GW by 2023. Read more ..
The Race for Solar
|Susan Kraemer||April 17th 2012|
Every square meter of Saudi Arabia produces an extraordinary 7 kilowatt hours of energy daily in each 12 hours of sun power. If the Saudis were to use up each days solar energy supply, or 12,425 TWh of electricity, it would be a 72 year supply. Put another way, in just one day, enough solar energy hits Saudi sands to power the kingdom for 72 years, according to a study made by the World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology.
That is an extraordinary resource. It is significantly more than the rest of the world. For example: as a Californian who used a typical 15 kilowatt hours of energy a day, this means my entire home could have been fully solar powered by just 2 square meters – or about 3 feet by 6 feet – of solar panels in Saudi Arabia! And Saudi Arabia has about 2 trillion square meters able to produce 14 trillion kilowatt hours of solar energy every sunny day – that is enough to power the world. Read more ..
The Sudan on Edge
|Millard Burr||April 17th 2012|
News that forces of the nascent Government of South Sudan have occupied the Heglig Oil Field operated by the Government of the Sudan in its South Kordofan region is but the most recent chapter in a sad history that stretches back for more than a quarter-century.
Approached rationally, the distribution of oil wealth might have worked miracles in uniting the two Sudans whose fissiparous political and cultural tendencies were quite apparent even prior to its achieving independence in 1956. Predictably, the Sudanese Muslim majority that held power in Khartoum reacted selfishly, assuming a proprietary interest in the resource and giving short shrift to Southern claims.
Jaafar Numayri, President of the Sudan from 1969-1985, dealt the oil card to create divisions among Sudan's southern politicians, and in doing so he also expanded the growing breech between North and South. For most Muslims of the North, especially the politically powerful riverine Arabs, an impoverished Southern Sudan -- which comprised Bahr al-Ghazal, Upper Nile and Equatoria provinces -- really wasn't worth bothering about. Sudan had already suffered through one civil war (1955-1972), and the battle to maintain national cohesiveness was expensive; it would not have been worth the effort had it not been for the fact that had they been allowed to secede the Southern provinces could then tap the Upper Nile water resource which was crucial to Sudan and Egypt. Read more ..
Energy vs Environment
|Mike Williams||April 17th 2012|
Researchers at Rice University and Penn State University have discovered that adding a dash of boron to carbon while creating nanotubes turns them into solid, spongy, reusable blocks that have an astounding ability to absorb oil spilled in water. That’s one of a range of potential innovations for the material created in a single step. The team found for the first time that boron puts kinks and elbows into the nanotubes as they grow and promotes the formation of covalent bonds, which give the sponges their robust qualities.
The researchers, who collaborated with peers in labs around the nation and in Spain, Belgium and Japan, revealed their discovery in Nature’s Scientific Reports. Lead a uthor Daniel Hashim, a graduate student in the Rice lab of materials scientist Pulickel Ajayan, said the blocks are both superhydrophobic (they hate water, and float really well) and oleophilic (they love oil). The nanosponges, which are more than 99 percent air, also conduct electricity and can easily be manipulated with magnets. To demonstrate, Hashim dropped the sponge into a dish of water with used motor oil floating on top. The sponge soaked it up. He then put a match to the material, burned off the oil and returned the sponge to the water to absorb more. The robust sponge can be used repeatedly and stands up to abuse; he said a sample remained elastic after about 10,000 compressions in the lab. The sponge can also store the oil for later retrieval, he said. Read more ..
The Race for Energy
|Jared Sagoff||April 16th 2012|
Argonne National Labs
Nuclear and coal power plants are some of the thirstiest machines on earth. The turbines that spin inside of them to generate electricity require tons and tons of steam—and all of that water has to come from somewhere.
Recent studies have estimated that roughly two-fifths of the nation’s freshwater withdrawals and three percent of overall freshwater consumption goes to supplying the steam generators at large power stations in the United States. In order to cut down on the enormous quantities of water required to operate these plants, scientists have begun to look for alternative cooling methods and new technologies that could improve their efficiency and reduce the demand for water.
As part of a larger consortium involving partners from several energy companies, universities, and government agencies, researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Argonne National Laboratory are developing a special class of nanoparticles that partially melt as steam evaporates from a plant’s cooling towers, absorbing a significant percentage of the diffused heat in the system. In order to operate, electrical plants use a cycle that uses partially condensed high-temperature steam to turn a large turbine. During generation, a significant quantity of this steam is lost due to evaporation. “In every cycle, there’s a significant amount of water that we can’t recapture,” said Argonne materials scientist Dileep Singh, who is working to develop the specialized nanoparticles. Read more ..
The Race for EVs
|Shifra Mincer||April 15th 2012|
The idea seemed flawless: battery-powered cars that could run on 100% electricity and could be recharged almost instantly by swapping batteries at special charging stations. But despite all the optimistic predictions, Better Place, the Israeli company that has been trying to build the world’s first operational infratructure for electric vehicles (EV), has been facing a series of obstacles in moving ahead with its technology.
Israel Corp., which holds 32% of the company’s shares, reported that Better Place lost over 1.5 billion NIS ($433 million) since 2009, 760 million NIS ($204 million) of which was lost over the course of 2011 alone, and deployment of battery recharging and swapping stations has been delayed in both Denmark in Israel from the scheduled date this April to the summer.
Better Place has secured millions in funding from private investors around the globe and has been spending heavily in the last few years as it attempts to build complete EV infrastructure in Israel and Denmark that will include not only battery swapping stations for long distance travel but also hardware, software, installation mechanisms, and charge sports in parking lots, urban centers, offices and residences to support use of EVs. Read more ..
The Race for Methane
|David Chandler||April 14th 2012|
During the massive oil spill from the ruptured Deepwater Horizon well in 2010, it seemed at first like there might be a quick fix: a containment dome lowered onto the broken pipe to capture the flow so it could be pumped to the surface and disposed of properly. But that attempt quickly failed, because the dome almost instantly became clogged with frozen methane hydrate.
Methane hydrates, which can freeze upon contact with cold water in the deep ocean, are a chronic problem for deep-sea oil and gas wells. Sometimes these frozen hydrates form inside the well casing, where they can restrict or even block the flow, at enormous cost to the well operators.
Now researchers at MIT, led by associate professor of mechanical engineering Kripa Varanasi, say they have found a solution. The deep sea is becoming “a key source” of new oil and gas wells, Varanasi says, as the world’s energy demands continue to increase rapidly. But one of the crucial issues in making these deep wells viable is “flow assurance”: finding ways to avoid the buildup of methane hydrates. Presently, this is done primarily through the use of expensive heating systems or chemical additives. Read more ..
After the Spill
|Lori Wright ||April 12th 2012|
University of New Hampshire
University of New Hampshire researchers have found that residents of Louisiana and Florida most acutely and directly affected by the BP Deepwater Horizon disaster -- the largest marine oil spill in U.S. history -- said they have changed their views on other environmental issues as a result of the spill. "If disasters teach any lessons, then experience with the Gulf oil spill might be expected to alter opinions about the need for environmental protection. About one-fourth of our respondents said that as a result of the spill, their views on other environmental issues such as global warming or protecting wildlife had changed," said Lawrence Hamilton, professor of sociology at the University of New Hampshire. "This proportion rose to 35 percent among those most affected economically by the spill. People reporting changed views also expressed greater concern about sea level rise due to climate change, more support for a moratorium on deepwater drilling, and were more likely to favor alternative energy rather than increased oil exploration," Hamilton said.
Hamilton and his colleagues Thomas Safford, assistant professor of sociology, and Jessica Ulrich, a doctoral student in sociology, present their findings in the journal Social Science Quarterly in the article "In the Wake of the Spill: Environmental Views Along the Gulf Coast." Read more ..
The Race for Biofuel
|Michael Bernstein||April 12th 2012|
The world's first "electrified snail" has joined the menagerie of cockroaches, rats, rabbits and other animals previously implanted with biofuel cells that generate electricity — perhaps for future spy cameras, eavesdropping microphones and other electronics — from natural sugar in their bodies. Scientists are describing how their new biofuel cell worked for months in a free-living snail in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.
In the report, Evgeny Katz and colleagues point out that many previous studies have involved "potentially implantable" biofuel cells. So far, however, none has produced an implanted biofuel cell in a small live animal that could generate electricity for an extended period of time without harming the animal. "The snail with the implanted biofuel cell will be able to operate in a natural environment, producing sustainable electrical micropower for activating various bioelectronic devices," the authors say.
To turn a living snail into a power source, the researchers made two small holes in its shell and inserted high-tech electrodes made from compressed carbon nanotubes. They coated the highly conductive material with enzymes, which foster chemical reactions in animals' bodies. Using a different enzyme on each electrode, one pulling electrons from glucose and another using those electrons to turn oxygen molecules into water, they induced an electric current. Read more ..
The Race for Cordless
|John Zimmer||April 12th 2012|
For more than 50 years, pacemakers have set the rhythm for many hearts. The engineering of microelectronic implants has since advanced by leaps and bounds: they have become ever-smaller and more technologically sophisticated. The trend is moving toward miniaturized, intelligent systems that will take over therapeutic and diagnostic functions. For example, in the future implantable sensors will measure glucose levels, blood pressure or the oxygen saturation of tumorous tissue, transmitting patient data via telemetry. Meanwhile, medication dosing systems and infusion pumps will be able to deliver a targeted release of pharmaceutical substances in the body, alleviating side effects in the process.
Technology that can be worn on a belt
All these solutions are composed of probes, actuators, signal processing units and electronic controls – and therein lies the problem, too: they must have a power supply. Batteries are usually ruled out because of their limited durability – after all, implants stay inside the body for years. Currently, radio wave-based (HF) and inductive systems are most commonly in use. However, these exhibit differences in efficiency based on location, position and movement and are also often limited in range. Soon, a new power transfer system should circumvent the limitations of previous methods. Read more ..
The 2012 Vote
|Justin Sink ||April 10th 2012|
A conservative political action committee is going up with a new television commercial — backed by a $1.7 million ad buy — slamming President Obama's energy policies. The ad, titled "Too Much," accuses the president of taking credit for increased oil production that was put into motion by the Geroge W. Bush administration. The Crossroads GPS super-PAC — backed by Bush adviser Karl Rove — said the commercial would air in Colorado, Florida, Iowa, Nevada, Ohio and Virginia, all expected to be pivotal swing states in the coming election.
“President Obama’s ‘hope and change’ has deteriorated into hype and blame — puffing up his record and blaming others for policy failures,” said Crossroads GPS President Steven Law. “This ad sets the record straight and calls for real solutions to sky-high gas prices, not more political spin.” Gas prices have become an increasingly prominent issue in recent months as oil has hit unseasonably high peaks. Republican candidates, including Mitt Romney and Newt Gingrich, have strongly criticized the president for his energy policy and suggested increased drilling in offshore and federally owned lands could drive down prices. Read more ..
The Race for EVs
|Franz Miller||April 7th 2012|
Listening to the radio is a favorite German pastime. Every day, more than 60 million people turn their radios on, especially while driving, and studies show that one in two of them are unwilling to give up enjoying radio programs behind the wheel. But in the vehicle of the future, the electric car, listening to the radio is in principle not possible, since electrical interference impedes the reception of radio waves. These disruptions are caused by the frequency converter, which changes electrical energy into mechanical energy so as to control the electric motor’s speed and direction of rotation. These converters turn the current and the voltage on and off rapidly and frequently, and the way they chop electrical energy up in fractions of a second produces electromagnetic interference. If this becomes too loud, you can only hear the electric drive, not the car radio.
To get around this problem, not only must the engine’s cabling be shielded, the motor itself must also be insulated – but this comes with a high price tag for automakers. Fortunately, researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration IZM in Berlin have worked out how to significantly reduce these costs. Dr. Eckart Hoene, director of the Power Electronic Systems research group, and his team have developed a whole series of tools and methods for reducing interference. Using new simulations and calculation methods, the engineers can for instance now determine where in the vehicle components should be positioned to keep their electromagnetic interactions to a minimum. Read more ..
The Race for Wind
|Julia Harte||April 6th 2012|
|Traditional Turkish Windmill|
An organic farmer near İzmir in western Turkey awoke a few weeks ago to the sound of poles and transmission lines being installed on a hill near his farm. The lines will connect new wind energy projects in Çeşme to the city of İzmir, but pose a serious threat to future farming activity in the region, according to the farmer. The twist: this organic farmer is also the manager of one of Turkey’s first wind energy project developers.
A haven of organic farming
Because of his prominence in the sector, the organic farmer and wind energy company manager didn’t want his name published. But he explained the situation in an exclusive interview. We’ll call him Rüzgar (“wind” in Turkish, also sometimes used as a first name for men) for the purposes of this article. “The channel which the line is passing through is the only region conducting organic farming activities such as ours,” Rüzgar says. “I just want to show the paradox of how these wind power plant activities — which we are deeply involved in — are destroying our organic farming activities.” Read more ..
The Obama Edge
|Chris Hamby||April 5th 2012|
The Energy Department kept Treasury Department officials in the dark until late in the government's review of the $535 million loan to now-bankrupt solar panel maker Solyndra, triggering a rushed consultation that may have left concerns unresolved, a new audit released April 4 found.
The audit by the Treasury Department’s inspector general found that Treasury officials had raised serious concerns about the terms of the loan, but there was no documentation of whether they were addressed. The report’s findings of hurried reviews and ignored warning signs echo previous reporting on Solyndra.
The loan, originally touted as a model of President Obama’s green energy program, has become a political weapon. “The Treasury report echoes what our investigation has shown over and over; Solyndra was a bad bet from the beginning that was rushed out the door while every red flag was ignored,” Republican Reps. Fred Upton and Cliff Stearns said in a statement Wednesday. Read more ..
The Race for Solar
|Tafline Laylin||April 4th 2012|
Just 107 years after the Wright Brothers became famous for successfully flying the world’s first airplane, Swiss pilots Bertrand Piccard and André Borschberg made history in July, 2010 by piloting the longest solar-powered flight at 26 hours, 10 minutes, and 19 seconds. Now they have announced plans to break their own record in May or June by flying their Solar Impulse plane from Switzerland to Morocco in preparation of their round-the-world trip scheduled for next year.
The 1,550 mile journey from Switzerland over the Pyrenees Mountains is expected to last 48 hours, which will be by far the longest solar-powered flight ever. This flight will not use a single drop of oil, and therefore it will produce zero harmful greenhouse gas emissions. Piccard and Borschberg will take turns flying the plane and will switch seats during a brief stopover in Madrid. Read more ..
An international research team is reporting the results of a research cruise they organized to study the amount, spread, and impacts of radiation released into the ocean from the tsunami-crippled reactors in Fukushima, Japan. The group of 17 researchers and technicians from eight institutions spent 15 days at sea in June 2011 studying ocean currents, and sampling water and marine organisms up to the edge of the exclusion zone around the reactors.
Led by Ken Buesseler, a senior scientist and marine chemist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), the team found that the concentration of several key radioactive substances, or radionuclides, were elevated but varied widely across the study area, reflecting the complex nature of the marine environment. In addition, although levels of radioactivity in marine life sampled during the cruise were well below levels of concern for humans and the organisms themselves, the researchers leave open the question of whether radioactive materials are accumulating on the seafloor sediments and, if so, whether these might pose a long-term threat to the marine ecosystem. The results appear in the April 2 online edition of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). Read more ..
|Robert Sanders||April 2nd 2012|
University of California, Berkeley
A new type of hybrid material could help oil and chemical companies save energy and money—and lower their environmental impacts—by eliminating an energy-intensive gas-separation process.
Today, to separate hydrocarbon gas mixtures into the pure chemicals needed to make plastics, refineries “crack” crude oil at high temperatures—500 to 600 degrees Celsius—to break complex hydrocarbons into lighter, short-chain molecules. They then chill the gaseous mixture to 100 degrees below zero Celsius to liquefy and divide the gases into those destined for plastics and those used as fuel for home heating and cooking.“Cryogenic distillation at low temperatures and high pressures is among the most energy-intensive separations carried out at large scale in the chemical industry, and an environmental problem because of its contributions to global climate change,” said Jeffrey Long, a professor of chemistry at the UC Berkeley and a faculty researcher at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
Long and his UC Berkeley colleagues now have created an iron-based material—a metal-organic framework, or MOF—that can be used at high temperatures to efficiently separate these gases while eliminating the chilling. “You need a very pure feedstock of propylene and ethylene for making some of the most important polymers, such as polypropylene, for consumer products, but refineries dump a lot of energy into bringing the high temperature gases down to cryogenic temperatures,” Long said. “If you can do the separation at higher temperatures, you can save that energy. This material is really good at doing these particular separations.” Read more ..
The Race for Nuclear
|Andrew Restuccia||March 31st 2012|
Federal regulators greenlighted the construction of new nuclear reactors Friday for just the second time in longer than three decades.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) voted 4-1 to approve a license allowing construction and conditional operation of two new reactors at Scana Corp.’s Virgil C. Summer nuclear power plant in Fairfield County, S.C. NRC Chairman Gregory Jaczko was the lone vote against approving the license. About two months ago, the commission approved construction of new reactors at Southern Co.’s Vogtle power plant near Waynesboro, Ga. The February decision marked the first time regulators approved construction of a new reactor since 1978. Friday’s decision is a major victory for the nuclear power industry, which has struggled for years to receive the necessary regulatory approvals to build new reactors.
“The Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s approval of the license application to build two new advanced-design reactors continues the needed expansion of our nation’s electricity system,” said Marvin Fertel, president of the Nuclear Energy Institute, in a statement. “This will be one of the largest construction and engineering projects in South Carolina history. It will create thousands of well-paying jobs during construction and provide careers for several hundred more people over the decades that the new reactors will generate electricity.” Read more ..
The Race for Alt Fuels
|Wileen Wong Kromhout||March 30th 2012|
University of California, Los Angeles
Imagine being able to use electricity to power your car—your existing car, not an electric vehicle. Researchers at the UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science have for the first time demonstrated a method for converting carbon dioxide into a liquid fuel—isobutanol—using electricity.
Today, electrical energy generated by various methods is still difficult to store efficiently. Chemical batteries, hydraulic pumping, and water splitting suffer from low energy-density storage or incompatibility with current transportation infrastructure.
In a study published March 30 in the journal Science, James Liao, UCLA’s Ralph M. Parsons Foundation Chair in Chemical Engineering, and his team report a method for storing electrical energy as chemical energy in higher alcohols, which can be used as liquid transportation fuels.
“The current way to store electricity is with lithium ion batteries, in which the density is low, but when you store it in liquid fuel, the density could actually be very high,” Liao said. “In addition, we have the potential to use electricity as transportation fuel without needing to change current infrastructure.” Read more ..
Broken Energy Policy
|Ronnie Greene||March 29th 2012|
|President Obama meeting with Solyndra officials|
On August 20, 2009, an Energy Department staffer examining a pending loan to a California clean energy start-up came to a startling conclusion: The company would run out of money by September 2011.
As part of the 2009 job-creating stimulus, the government has committed nearly $40 billion to clean energy projects. The first loan guarantee went to Solyndra Inc., a California solar firm backed by an Obama fundraiser. But instead of picking a winner, the government backed a loser. The firm failed, putting more than 1,000 people out of work and taxpayers on the hook for $535 million. Among questions now: Did the White House unduly influence the process? Did the Energy Department rush its first commitment, ignoring warning signs about the company's viability? Will this failed project cost Obama?
The Department of Energy was fully aware of the risks in backing Solyndra Inc., a start-up company that pocketed a half-billion dollar DOE loan but never turned a penny in profit before shutting its doors, concludes a former FBI agent hired to examine the company’s books. Read more ..
|Andrew Restuccia||March 28th 2012|
The Interior Department on Wednesday green-lighted a plan that brings Shell closer to drilling in waters off the coast of Alaska this summer. The department’s Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) announced that it has approved Shell’s oil spill response plan for exploration in the Beaufort Sea, which is located in arctic waters off Alaska’s northern coast. Interior said it subjected the plan to additional scrutiny based on a series of beefed-up safety and environmental standards put in place in the aftermath of the massive 2010 Gulf of Mexcio oil spill.
“We have conducted an exhaustive review of Shell’s response plan for the Beaufort Sea,” BSEE Director James Watson said in a news release. “Our focus moving forward will be to hold Shell accountable and to follow-up with exercises, reviews and inspections to ensure that all personnel and equipment are positioned and ready.” Shell called approval of the plan a “major milestone” in its longtime efforts to drill in the Arctic. Read more ..
The Race for Alt Energy
|Julien Happich ||March 27th 2012|
In the continual quest for better thermoelectric materials — which convert heat into electricity and vice versa — researchers have identified a liquid-like compound whose properties give it the potential to be even more efficient than traditional thermoelectrics.
The researchers studied a material made from copper and selenium. Although it is physically a solid, it exhibits liquid-like behaviors due to the way its copper atoms flow through the selenium's crystal lattice. "It's like a wet sponge," explains Jeff Snyder, a faculty associate in applied physics and materials science in the Division of Engineering and Applied Science at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and a member of the research team. "If you have a sponge with very fine pores in it, it looks and acts like a solid. But inside, the water molecules are diffusing just as fast as they would if they were a regular liquid. That's how I imagine this material works. It has a solid framework of selenium atoms, but the copper atoms are diffusing around as fast as they would in a liquid." Read more ..
The Race For Wind
|M.B. Reilly||March 26th 2012|
The production of wind-derived renewable energy is growing, and so, it’s important to help wind farm owners operate at higher efficiencies with lower costs.
In fact, figures from the World Wind Energy Association report that installed global capacity for wind-energy production was approximately 240,000 megawatts of power in 2011, up nearly ten fold since 2001.
That growth, which is expected to continue, will increase demand to facilitate plant efficiency and lowered operational costs along with just-in-time turbine maintenance among wind farms. And to that end, University of Cincinnati researchers have been conducting real-world tests of new predictive software that does just that – increases efficiency and lowers costs when it comes to commercial wind-turbine operations. The test results, which analyze two years’ worth of operating and environmental data from a commercial wind turbine, have just been published in the Journal of Renewable Energy, along with information on the predictive maintenance software. Read more ..
The Race for Hydrogen
|Michael Bernstein ||March 26th 2012|
The long-sought technology for enabling the fabled "hydrogen economy" — an era based on hydrogen fuel that replaces gasoline, diesel and other fossil fuels, easing concerns about foreign oil and air pollution — has been available for decades and could begin commercial production of hydrogen in this decade, a scientist reported here today.
Speaking at the 243rd National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society (ACS), the world's largest scientific society, Ibrahim Khamis, Ph.D., described how heat from existing nuclear plants could be used in the more economical production of hydrogen, with future plants custom-built for hydrogen production. He is with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria.
"There is rapidly growing interest around the world in hydrogen production using nuclear power plants as heat sources," Khamis said. "Hydrogen production using nuclear energy could reduce dependence on oil for fueling motor vehicles and the use of coal for generating electricity. In doing so, hydrogen could have a beneficial impact on global warming, since burning hydrogen releases only water vapor and no carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas. There is a dramatic reduction in pollution." Read more ..
The Road's Edge
|Keith Laing||March 25th 2012|
The political debate over gas prices appears to be complicating Democratic efforts to compare the standoff over federal transportation spending to last year’s shutdown of the Federal Aviation Administration.
With gas prices on the rise, some Republican strategists think voters might welcome at least a temporary 18.4 cent-per-gallon break on the cost of filling up their gas tanks.
“A stalled highway bill could cause short-term relief from gas price pain for millions of Americans who aren't thinking about the ramifications,” former Senate Republican Conference Chief of Staff Ron Bonjean said in an email.
Few people in Washington are arguing that Congress should eliminate the gas tax altogether. But if lawmakers do not agree on at least a temporary extension that is what would happen on March 31 until lawmakers end their logjam.
Most observers expect the impasse will end before it gets to that point. But in the run up to the deadline, Democrats have been raising the specter of an interruption and blaming Republicans for the possibility. Democrats argue that a gas tax interruption would be worse than the temporarily shutdown of the FAA in 2011 because the gas tax generates $100 million per day for the federal government, which is used to fund transportation projects across the country. The FAA shutdown, which lasted two weeks, was projected to have cost the federal government $30 million per day in lost sales taxes on airline ticket purchases. Read more ..
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