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Edge on Petroleum

New Infra-red Technique Can Detect and Quantify Petroleum Hydrocarbon Pollutants

October 11th 2010

Science - Infrared petro detector

Scientists in Australia have developed a revolutionary technique for the rapid on-site detection and quantification of petroleum hydrocarbons (commonly derived from crude oil) in soil, silt, sediment, or rock. Researchers at the continent's leading scientific institution, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, in collaboration with Ziltek Pty Ltd. - a company specializing in waste technology - developed a technique that can quantify the presence of petroleum hydrocarbons by simply by using a hand-held infrared spectrometer to take readings at the site of interest, without the need to take samples or perform any kind of processing. Read more ..

Edge on Solar Power

BrightSource Shines a Light on a Solar Future

October 4th 2010

Energy Topics - BrightSource array

The Israeli-founded solar energy company, BrightSource, is building in California the largest solar-powered steam turbine generator ever built in the world. It hasn’t been without its struggles: environmentalists showed how the original build site for the solar panels interfered with wildlife such as coyotes. The company has responded, for instance, by making plans to relocate a native species of tortoise.

Now it looks like it is full steam ahead for BrightSource. The Israeli business newspaper Globes reports that BrightSource has just raised an additional $30 million, bringing its investment total to $300 million.

According to Globes, BrightSource has also $10 million from the Russian government venture capital fund and private investors. While founded only 4 years ago, BrightSource Energy is the parent company of BrightSource Industries Ltd. BSII has been pioneering solar thermal energy for nearly three decades.  Read more ..

Oil Spills

Enbridge Doesn't Cough-up Enough in Claims for Michigan Oil Spill

September 27th 2010

Energy / Environment - Denise Green - Enbridge oil spill victim
Oil spill victim Denise Green testifies before Congress

Phyllis Nelson defied her doctors’ predictions by surviving chronic lung disease for the last seven years, and until late July she had her symptoms under control with just a single puff a day from her inhaler.

Then came the oil spill on July 25 — more than 800,000 gallons of crude from a broken pipeline spewing into the waterways near the trailer home park where she lives in Battle Creek, Mich. The spill forced Nelson and her neighbors to evacuate. Read more ..

Natural gas on the Edge

Natural Gas Exports are Challenged as Fair Deal for Peru

September 20th 2010

Energy Topics - Peru Pampa CNG facility

Between 2004 and 2009, approximately $1.13 billion in revenue generated by the Camisea natural gas project was transferred to local governments in Camisea’s sphere of influence. However, more than five years after the start of operations, critical gaps in meeting the basic needs of local citizens remain.” -Oxfam

The natural gas industry in Peru has boomed since mid-2004, when natural gas from the Camisea Project, located in the Urubamba Basin in the southeastern Peruvian Amazon, began to flow. At approximately $1.7 billion, Peru’s Camisea Project represents the largest investment in the country’s history. Since the project’s 2004 launch, according to an Oxfam report published in July of 2010, Camisea has been satisfying part of the external market demand for natural gas, albeit at alarmingly low prices dictated by the existing contract. These low prices, along with the sub-par royalties awarded to Peru in comparison to other gas-exporting Latin American countries, have become a liability for the Peruvian economy. Indeed, in terms of natural gas exports, Peru is currently not getting a fair deal. Read more ..

Edge on Petro-Politics

Tension Between North and South Sudan over Oil Revenues

September 13th 2010

Africa Topics - Sudan oil

The government of southern Sudan says it has resolved a dispute with the north over oil payments, months before a vote on independence.
Officials from the south’s finance ministry said on September 10 the north has agreed to resume paying the southern share of oil revenues in foreign currency, after switching to the Sudanese pound earlier this year. David Deng Athorbei, the finance minister for the south, to accuse the Muslim-dominated Khartoum of trying to undermine the southern economy. Sudan’s central bank in the north denied the accusation. The southern Sudanese government funds 98 percent of its budget with oil revenues. Read more ..

After the Spill

New Gulf of Mexico Oil Platform Fire Re-fuels Debate on Offshore Drilling

September 6th 2010

Energy / Environment - oil platform fire

An explosion on a Gulf of Mexico oil platform thrust the politics of offshore drilling back in the spotlight, as critics immediately seized on the accident to highlight what they called the industry’s inherent dangers.

The explosion and fire happened during the morning hours of September 2 at a production platform at Vermilion Block 380, about 100 miles off the Louisiana coast, according to its owner, Houston-based Mariner Energy, Inc. That’s west of where the Deepwater Horizon rig exploded in April, killing 11 workers, setting off one of the worst environmental disasters in U.S. history and leading to protracted debate on Capitol Hill over the merits and safety of offshore drilling. Read more ..

After the Spill

Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Response Exacerbates OPEC/Oil Dependence Dilemma

August 30th 2010

Contributors / Staff - Gal Luft

The three-month oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has been a stark reminder of one of the intangible costs of the transportation sector's near total dependence on oil. But if there was some hope that from this disaster would emerge policies that aim at strengthening America's energy security now it is clear that nothing close to that is going to happen. To the contrary, official response to the spill has only weakened our energy security. An impulsive moratorium banning exploratory drilling in the Gulf of Mexico, home to about 30 percent of U.S. domestic output, was announced, and two drilling rigs have already set sail, heading to foreign waters where busy drilling schedule is already awaiting them. Drilling rigs are in great demand and once they leave the Gulf of Mexico they are not likely to be back for years.

In response to the spill, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid introduced a bill comprised of a mishmash of policies that mostly have nothing to do with oil.  A few days after its introduction, Senator Reid pulled the bill in the face of strong opposition and Congress broke for recess. Reid's pledge to continue the fight in September should not get us overly excited. In the weeks running up to the elections our elected officials will be busy undermining their political opponents, not OPEC. Read more ..

The Obama Edge

Energy Department Gets Mixed Reviews for Spending Stimulus Dollars

August 23rd 2010

Energy Topics - Obama and Secretary Chu
Barack Obama and Energy Secretary Steven Chu

The Energy Department’s internal watchdog has mixed reviews of the department’s distribution and use of economic stimulus dollars, even as the White House touts the massive spending bill in the run-up to midterms.

President Obama’s planned tour on August 23 of ZBB Energy Corp.’s facilities in Menomonee Falls, Wis., is the latest in a series of stops this election season to highlight what the administration calls the effectiveness of federal clean energy stimulus investments. But recent reports by DOE’s Inspector General (IG) have cited problems with the department’s distribution of the stimulus dollars and recipients’ use of them. The IG reported on August 18 that DOE has given out about $2.7 billion of $3.2 billion in energy and conservation block grants provided in last year’s stimulus. Read more ..

Edge on Batteries

Wax and Soap Make Better Lithium-ion Batteries

August 16th 2010

Energy Topics - Lithium Manganese battery

A little wax and soap can help build electrodes for cheaper lithium ion batteries, according to a recent study. The one-step method will allow battery developers to explore lower-priced alternatives to the lithium ion-metal oxide batteries currently on the market.

"Paraffin provides a medium in which to grow good electrode materials," said material scientist Daiwon Choi of the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. "This method will help researchers investigate cathode materials based on cheaper transition metals such as manganese or iron."

Consumers use long-lasting rechargeable lithium ion batteries in everything from cell phones to the latest portable gadget. Some carmakers want to use them in vehicles. Most lithium ion batteries available today are designed with an oxide of metal such as cobalt, nickel, or manganese. Choi and colleagues at PNNL and State University of New York at Binghamton wanted to explore both cheaper metals and the more stable phosphate in place of oxide.

The Recharge Tale

These rechargeable batteries work because lithium is selfish and wants its own electron. Positively charged lithium ions normally hang out in metal oxide, the stable, positive electrode in batteries. Metal oxide generously shares its electrons with the lithium ions. Read more ..

Tidal Power

Tidal Power Rises in the Mediterranean

August 9th 2010

Energy Topics - Israeli wave power

It’s where the ancient biblical story of Jonah and the Whale took place. Now SDE Energy builds tidal energy plant in Jaffa, which should expand to 50 MW. The ancient port city of Jaffa, today a part of Tel Aviv, has added one more attraction to its historical harbor as a new sea wave power plant is completed. The Israeli tidal wave energy firm SDE have completed the construction of its first large scale sea wave power plant capable of producing 60 KWh. The new plant only has one buoy and is fully automated with only 10 percent of it in the water so to minimize the risk of damage to the system by storms and other natural disasters. The company already has business in China, India, and in Africa. The plant which is the ninth completed by the firm is the initial part of a plan the will lead to a 50 MW plant in the breakwaters of Jaffa, when finished to new plant will not only provide cost efficient renewable electricity to the port but also prevent the erosion of the breakwater usually caused by high wave. The firm has come to an agreement with Israel’s Electric Company to sell the electricity from the news plant at of 12 cents per KW. Read more ..

After the BP Spill

Haphazard Firefighting Might Have Sunk BP Oil Rig

August 2nd 2010

Energy / Environment - BP Rig fire

The Coast Guard has gathered evidence that it failed to follow its own firefighting policy during the Deepwater Horizon disaster and is investigating whether the chaotic spraying of tons of salt water by private boats contributed to sinking the ill-fated oil rig, according to interviews and documents.

Coast Guard officials reported that the service does not have the expertise to fight an oil rig fire and that its response to the April 20 explosion may have broken the service’s own rules by failing to ensure a firefighting expert supervised the half-dozen private boats that answered the Deepwater Horizon’s distress call to fight the blaze.

An official maritime investigation led by Coast Guard Capt. Hung M. Nguyen in New Orleans is examining whether the salt water that was sprayed across the burning platform overran the ballast system that kept the rig upright, changing its weight distribution, and causing it to list. “The joint investigation is absolutely looking into that, and whether it contributed to the sinking,” Capt. Ronald A. LaBrec, the Coast Guard’s chief spokesman, said.

The joint investigation by the Coast Guard and the Interior Department is one of 10 formal inquiries since the offshore oil well blew out, killing 11 workers and unleashing millions of gallons of oil into the Gulf of Mexico in the worst spill in U.S. history. The disaster entered its 100th day on Wednesday.

While investigators have zeroed in on a series of missteps and ignored safety warnings aboard the rig that preceded the fiery explosion on April 20, the question of what caused the platform to collapse into the Gulf two days later remains unanswered and could prove vital to ongoing legal proceedings and congressional investigations. Read more ..

Public Transit on the Edge

Lawmakers Ramp up Their Scrutiny of District's Troubled, Aging Metro System

July 26th 2010

Transportation Topics - Washington Metro

Congress began ramping up its oversight of Metro as Washington, D.C. mass transit riders braced for a possible fare hike and transit officials embarked on making long overdue safety changes while fighting a multi-million dollar budget shortfall.

President Barack Obama has requested $150 million in the 2011 fiscal year budget to continue bailing out the aged Metro system, with most of the money going to buy new rail cars, modernize existing equipment, and improve the system’s safety features.

But the Senate Appropriations subcommittee on transportation, housing and urban development, and related agencies is reluctant to hand over a blank check to the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) without closely scrutinizing the steps it’s taking, especially in the wake of a scathing audit by the Federal Transportation Agency (FTA) that recently found Metro to have persistent and systemic problems. Read more ..

After the BP Spill

Libya Positioned to Buy Major Stake in BP

July 19th 2010

Arab Topics - Muammar Qaddafi
Muammar al-Gaddafi

Just as the news for British Petroleum was getting brighter, with stocks soaring 6 percent higher after the temporary cap fell into place and sealed the leak into the Gulf of Mexico, news sources reported on a possible deal between the oil giant and the Libyan government that could end up in Libya’s owning a considerable stake in the oil company.

However, the story became even stickier for BP as the week ended. While its prices were at their disaster mode low, wealthy Libyan oil moguls were vying for a controlling stake in BP. Shokri Ghanem, chairman of Libya’s Nation Oil Co., with which BP is now doing business with, told Dow Jones Newswires that he will recommend investing in BP to the country’s sovereign wealth fund. Ghanem said in an interview, “BP is interesting now with the price lower by half and I still have trust in BP, I will recommend it to the [Libyan Investment Authority] … It’s a good opportunity for bargain hunters.” BP shares jumped 5 percent on the news out of Libya.

In addition, news on the street is that BP is now seeking increased Middle East investment as it guards against takeovers. European newspapers have reported that BP and the Kuwaiti Investment Authority are discussing increasing the Kuwaits’ existing 1.77 percent share in the company. BP CEO Tony Hayward recently flew to Abu Dhabi to meet Crown Prince Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan. Sheikh Mohammed is also the chairman of Mubadala Development, a strategic investment company owned by the Abu Dhabi government. Read more ..

After the BP Spill

Spill Puts K Street To Work

July 19th 2010

Energy / Environment - offshore oil rig

A half-dozen offshore drilling and oil services companies have formed a coalition to push back against the Obama administration’s drilling moratorium.

The Shallow Water Energy Security Coalition has hired lawyers, lobbyists and PR specialists at several K Street shops. Though shallow-water drilling has not been suspended by the White House—only deepwater operations have—the group believes the Interior Department is damaging its business by stalling drilling permits of all kinds.

The coalition is one of several new faces showing up on lobbyists’ row since the explosion that destroyed the Deepwater Horizon oilrig on April 20. There have been at least a dozen new lobbying registrations for companies reacting to new legislation and regulations stemming from the disaster, according to a review of disclosure records.

It’s not just oil companies, though, turning to K Street to defend themselves against the oil spill’s legislative aftermath. Firms that service oil wells and those that can help with the massive cleanup operations have all hired lobbyists either to keep an eye on new, tough safety regulations or to help win cleanup contracts. Read more ..

EVs on the Edge

GM Disappoints with Lower ‘Volt’age as Restricted Initial Production Announced

July 12th 2010

Energy Topics - Volt

Well, it is finally here, kind of. The answer to oil consumption , the cure for crude, the break from a dependency that has arguably guided the United State’s foreign policy for decades; Chevrolet announced that its electric vehicle for the everyman, the Volt, will be put into proto-production late this year, and many become for sale in 2011. The immediate outlook, however, is not as clear as the emissions the Volt will produce. Chevrolet will only have ten thousand produced for sale in 2011 in just a few states and coast-to-coast demand has for years been vastly greater. In other words, the Volt will be a vehicle of token production until at least 2012, betraying years of promises to unleash abundant production for a market that already enjoys more than 53,000 advance waiting list names. The vehicle is years late. Read more ..

Edge of Wind

A New Wind Blows Between Israelis and Palestinians

July 5th 2010

Energy Topics - Israeli Turbine
Flag-decorated Israeli Wind Turbine

Despite the latest tensions, two companies - one Palestinian and one Israeli - are integrating wind turbines together in the West Bank and beyond.

A path toward peace may be blowing in the wind, if a new wind energy project between a Palestinian and an Israeli company succeeds. The two companies, Israel Wind Power based in Ramat Gan, near Tel Aviv and Brothers Engineering Group from Bethlehem in the West Bank, have just announced their intention to cooperate in the building and selling of wind turbines in the West Bank region and beyond.

Most significant, they are undeterred by the latest tensions between Israel, the Palestinian Authority (PA) and world powers in the wake of the recent Turkish-led flotilla incident that occurred near Gaza. Read more ..

The BP Spill

Members of Congress Profit from BP and Transocean Holdings

June 28th 2010

Energy / Environment - Gulf Spill Protesters

Sen. John Kerry of Massachusetts and at least three other federal lawmakers have sold their holdings in companies tied to the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, it has been learned ahead the June 16 disclosure of 2009 personal financial records by all members of Congress.

According to an analysis, 20 members of Congress disclosed owning at least $1,001 worth of shares in BP or Transocean Ltd in their 2008 financial forms filed one year ago.

Kerry has sold his Transocean stock since the 2008 filing but still owns between $1,001 and $15,000 worth of stock in BP, his spokeswoman confirmed. The annual disclosure forms require members of the Senate and House to specify only a general range of asset values, not specific dollar amounts.

Despite his financial interest in the company, the Massachusetts Democrat has taken a hard line on BP in public statements. “I think we can finally get that oil leak plugged if we stuff it with the BP executives’ bonus money,” Kerry, the lead sponsor of a climate bill, said in a speech the previous week. Read more ..

The BP Spill

Senior Democrat to Unveil Offshore Drilling Overhaul

June 21st 2010

Energy Topics - Gulf oil spill

Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee Chairman Jeff Bingaman (D-N.M.) plans to unveil legislation next week that would overhaul federal oversight of offshore oil-and-gas drilling and impose new safety standards.

Bingaman is readying the bill ahead of plans by Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-Nev.) to bring wide-ranging energy legislation to the floor as soon as July.

Bingaman spokesman Bill Wicker declined on June 18 to provide details about Bingaman’s bill, but suggested it will be expansive. “It will address all the things which are in the scope of our committee's jurisdiction,” Wicker said.

He said it would be released some time ahead of a June 25 hearing that will explore several pieces of legislation in response to the Gulf of Mexico oil spill. Read more ..

Edge of Energy

Discovery of Natural Gas Reserves in Israel is a World-class Game Changer

June 14th 2010

Israel Topics - Leviathan Oil field 2
Leviathan natural gas field rig

A  door has been closed. But amid the roar, the creak of an opening window was faintly audible. This window, a gigantic deposit of natural gas called Leviathan, 6.5 times the size of Tel Aviv, was found, roughly 100 nautical miles from where the flotilla fiasco took place and well within Israel's extended territorial waters.

An old adage says that when God closes a door, somewhere he opens a window. To most people, last week's events off the coast of Gaza marked a sharp decline in Israel's strategic posture. The Mavi Marmara incident sparked international condemnation and delivered what may have been a death blow to Jerusalem's already precarious relations with Turkey. For decades that country was Israel's closest ally in the Muslim world, but since the election of Recep Tayyip Erdogan, it is increasingly in the thrall of fundamentalist Islam.

A door has been closed. But amid the roar, the creak of an opening window was faintly audible. This window, a gigantic deposit of natural gas called Leviathan, 6.5 times the size of Tel Aviv, was found, roughly 100 nautical miles from where the flotilla fiasco took place and well within Israel's extended territorial waters. This discovery may provide Israel with security in terms of its supply of electricity, turn it into an important natural gas exporter and provide a shot in the arm of some $300 billion over the life of the field - one-and-a-half times the national GDP - to the Israeli economy, already one of the most resilient in the world. Read more ..

Iran's Nukes

How Brazilian Ethanol Could Help Iran Outwit American Sanctions

June 7th 2010

Contributors / Staff - Gal Luft

Brazilian President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva has been spending a lot of time with his Iranian counterpart Mahmoud Ahmadinejad lately, to the consternation of the former's supporters at home and friends elsewhere in the West. Brazil, currently a member of the U.N. Security Council, has been unapologetic about its newfound relationship with Iran, which produced a dubious nuclear fuel-swap deal last month; it defends Iran's right to enrich uranium and rejects any idea of tough economic sanctions. The budding friendship has baffled Washington: Why would this Latin American country, otherwise a U.S. ally, insist on cozying up to Iran to the detriment of its relations closer to home?

There are several possible explanations. Brazil has long harbored its own nuclear aspirations, and increasingly seeks to define its own foreign policy and emerge as an independent global power. But Lula's motives may be less complicated than all that: There are also $10 billion in Brazilian-Iranian trade deals to be had. Perhaps the most intriguing, and strategic, aspect of those trade relations has to do with sugar.

Brazil is the world's largest sugar grower. This year it experienced a bumper crop, with output growing 16 percent from a year earlier. But due to a global glut, sugar prices have plunged 57 percent since February. Because sugar cane is a perishable crop that cannot be stored, the best way for Brazil to generate value from its undervalued surplus is by converting it into ethanol, of which Brazil is already the second-largest producer (after the United States) and a major consumer (for years Brazilians have driven mostly flex-fuel cars, which can run on any combination of gasoline and ethanol). The country's ethanol production is expected to rise 19 percent to 8 billion gallons this year. Read more ..

The BP Spill

Congress Assails BP for Vested Interest in Minimizing Damage

May 31st 2010

Energy Topics - Gulf oil spill

A top White House official and a senior Democrat on Sunday attacked BP for downplaying the amount of oil flowing into the Gulf of Mexico, accusing the oil giant of protecting its financial interests in low-balling the gusher’s size. The tough line with the company comes a day after BP and federal officials abandoned the “top kill” effort to block the damaged well.

“It is important to understand that BP has a financial interest in what those flow rates are. They will ultimately pay a fine based on those rates,” said Carol Browner, the White House climate and energy adviser, on CBS’s “Face the Nation.”

“It is important for people to understand [that] BP has a vested financial interest in downplaying the size of this,” Browner later added. “We are on top of it. We have the best minds looking at it.” Read more ..

The BP Spill

Criminal Probe of BP Suggested

May 24th 2010

Energy / Environment - BP Execs Testify

A group of Senate Democrats is pressing the Obama administration to escalate its probe of the Gulf of Mexico oil spill by launching a criminal investigation of BP. Eight members of the Environment and Public Works Committee in a letter Monday to Attorney General Eric Holder asked him to explore whether BP made “false and misleading statements to the federal government regarding its ability to respond to oil spills in the Gulf of Mexico.” The letter points to an exploration plan that BP provided Interior Department regulators in February of 2009 that addresses the company’s ability to respond to a spill. Read more ..

The BP Spill

Training Exercises Showed Gaps in Government Preparedness Before BP Oil Spill

May 17th 2010

Energy / Environment - Oil Spill Cleanup Crew

Over the last eight years, the U.S. government has conducted four major drills to prepare for a massive oil spill, the results of which foreshadowed many of the weaknesses in coordination, communication, expertise, and technology that have plagued the federal response to the BP disaster in the Gulf of Mexico.

According to interviews and after-action reports, the training exercises conducted in 2002, 2004, 2007, and just this past March caused federal officials to express concern about a host of issues. Most prominent among them:

  • coordination and communication between the Coast Guard and the Department of Homeland Security, especially involving the process for naming a National Incident Commander (NIC) to take charge of the crisis;
  • a slow or inaccurate flow of information from the industry, particularly caused by companies' desire to protect proprietary information and officials' tendency to exclude industry representatives from the government's command center; and
  • a lack of expertise and modern technology for closing a spewing oil well leak and containing a slick through controlled burns and dispersants.

Since then, the government has faced questions about why it took so long to declare the spill an emergency, why it didn’t use Pentagon planes sooner to spray dispersants and why it lacked a ready supply of specialized booms to contain and burn the growing oil slick. Read more ..

The Edge of Oil

OSHA Says 97% of Worst Industry Violations Found at BP Refineries

May 17th 2010

Energy / Environment - BP Refinery Explosion
BP's Renegade Refinery after Explosion

Two refineries owned by oil giant BP account for 97 percent of all flagrant violations found in the refining industry by government safety inspectors over the past three years, a Center for Public Integrity analysis shows. Most of BP’s citations were classified as “egregious willful” by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and reflect alleged violations of a rule designed to prevent catastrophic events at refineries.

BP is battling a massive oil well spill in the Gulf of Mexico after an April 20 platform blast that killed 11 workers. But the firm has been under intense OSHA scrutiny since its refinery in Texas City, Texas, exploded in March 2005, killing 15 workers. While continuing its probe in Texas City, OSHA launched a nationwide refinery inspection program in June 2007 in response to a series of fires, explosions, and chemical releases throughout the industry. Read more ..

Edge of Oil

Oil Spills—Large and Small—Create Continuing Disaster

May 10th 2010

This continuing coverage of America’s oil crisis arises from the The Plan: How to Save America When the Oil Stops—or the Day Before (Dialog Press). Buy it here.

Environmental damage caused by the petroleum industry and its consumers is earth-shattering, literally. The world focus is now on BP’s massive, out-of-control underwater gusher in the Gulf of Mexico. Estimates of that oil pollution telescope across the numbers. Many sources estimate as much as 5,000 barrels per day are escaping into the Gulf. Other experts say the true number is closer to 1.1 million gallons—approximately 26,500 barrels— per day. A barrel of crude equals about 42 gallons. It is all evolving guesswork based on a cascade of satellite images and thickness estimates derived from visual descriptions of the slick. At press time, at least 4 million gallons—or as many as 21 million gallons—have thus far spilled, and the spill clock is rapidly racing forward.

Thus far, the media is comparing this current disaster to the Exxon Valdez event. The Exxon Valdez spilled 10.8 million gallons into Alaska’s Prince William Sound in March 1989, devastating the shore along with the area’s sea life, birds, and furry animals. Oil spills such as that of the Exxon Valdez inflict severe local ecological disasters where they occur. The Exxon Valdez incident is famous, but is hardly the largest spill in recent years.

Saddam Hussein’s intentional destruction of Kuwaiti oil wells caused 24 million to 60 million gallons of crude to gush into the Persian Gulf. But the largest spill on record is from Pemex’s Ixtoc I. From June 3, 1979, until it was capped forty-two weeks later, Ixtoc I dumped an estimated 151.2 million gallons of crude into the Gulf of Mexico, most of which floated toward the Texas coastline. Read more ..

Edge on Energy

Energy Subsidies are Worse than a Waste of Money

May 3rd 2010

Energy Topics - Oil Barrels 400px

A comprehensive assessment of global fossil-fuel subsidies has found that governments are spending $500 billion annually on policies that undermine energy security and worsen the environment.

The study, titled "The Politics of Fossil-Fuel Subsidies" by David Victor, a professor of political science with UC San Diego's School of International Relations and Pacific Studies (IR/PS), was one of five released by the Global Subsidies Initiative (GSI) of the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD).

GSI's goal is to reform, reduce and ultimately eliminate fossil-fuel subsidies, which are highest in Iran, Russia, China, Saudi Arabia, India and Venezuela. The reform effort received a boost September 2009 when President Obama and other world leaders met in Pittsburgh, Pa., for the Group of 20 Summit. They agreed in a non-binding resolution to phase out fossil-fuel subsidies, but the measure didn't attempt to resolve difficult political issues such as how governments would actually achieve a phaseout. Victor's study addresses the political challenges. Read more ..

Energy Politics

Ukrainian President Stands to Gain from "Gas for Fleet" Agreement With Russians

April 26th 2010

Russian Topics - Black Sea fleet
Russian Black Sea Fleet

Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovich stands to gain from “the gas for fleet” agreement under which he agreed to allow Russia’s Black Sea Fleet to remain in Sevastopol until 2042 in exchange for Russian President Dmitry Medvedev’s reduction of gas prices for Ukrainian customers, even if the the Ukranian Parliament, the Verhovna Rada, refuses to ratify it.

That is because, Vladimir Pribylovsky of Moscow’s Panorama Center says, “Yanukovich needs to strengthen the opinion of voters about himself, to build up his image which he offered in the recent presidential elections,” all the more so because there may soon be elections for the Rada “and [he] needs to retain these voters.” Read more ..

The Edge of Coal

Democrats Pressure Coal Execs to Drop Opposition to Climate Legislation

April 19th 2010

Energy Topics - Coal Train

House Democrats on Wednesday pressured coal company executives to drop opposition to climate legislation at a hearing that also briefly touched on safety issues following the explosion last week that killed 29 miners.

Rep. Edward Markey (D-Mass.), the chairman of the House Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming, urged executives from Peabody Energy, Arch Coal and Rio Tinto to “cease efforts to deny the science of global warming” and stop “misleading the public as to the true science behind climate change.”

The focus of the committee’s hearing was the future of coal, but Markey also asked the executives if the number of safety violations reported at the Upper Big Branch mine in West Virginia prior to the blast was unusually high.

Markey said the mine had received more than 1,300 citations for safety violations from the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration since 2005.

The executives said the citations at the mine seemed high, but added the type of mining done there posed hazards different from those of other mines. The executives all said the safety of miners was a priority for the industry. Officials from Massey Energy, which owns the Upper Big Branch mine, did not attend Wednesday’s hearing. Read more ..

The Edge of Wind

Proposed Electric Grid Could Make Wind Power More Reliable

April 12th 2010

Energy Topics - Wind Turbine

The energy needs of the entire human population could potentially be met by converting wind energy to electricity. While offshore wind power resources are abundant, wind turbines are currently unable to provide steady power due to natural fluctuations in wind direction and strength. Steady is the key word.

Offshore wind power output can be made more consistent by choosing project development locations that take advantage of regional weather patterns and by connecting wind power generators with a shared power line, according to a paper by researchers from the University of Delaware and Stony Brook University published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

“Making wind-generated electricity more steady will enable wind power to become a much larger fraction of our electric sources,” said the paper's lead author Willett Kempton, University of Delaware professor of marine policy in the College of Earth, Ocean, and Environment and director of its Center for Carbon-free Power Integration.

The researchers analyzed five years of wind observations from 11 monitoring stations along the U.S. east coast from Florida to Maine. Based on wind speeds at each location, they estimated electrical power output from a hypothetical five-megawatt offshore turbine. After analyzing the patterns of wind energy among the stations along the coast, the team explored the seasonal effects on power output. Read more ..

The Race for Oil and Gas

Polarizing the North Pole and its Energy Riches

April 5th 2010

Energy / Environment - North Pole
The North Pole

Throughout human history, the Arctic has had little trouble retaining its reputation for austere beauty. However as the irreversible effects of global climate change continue to negatively impact ecosystems worldwide, the once ice blanketed region is rapidly melting away. This climatic shift has caused unexpected political tension between several northern nations.

At the same time, according to the United States Geological Survey (USGS) as much as 90 billion barrels of oil and 1,670 trillion cubic feet of natural gas may be available for extraction beneath the ice barrier. The United States, Canada, Norway, and Russia are at odds as they compete for access to the potential wealth.

When American politicians debate drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, they must realize that the 7.7 billion barrels of oil and the 3.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas to be found there pales in comparison to what the Arctic almost certainly has to offer. In a world where large energy consumers are scrambling for every last drop of oil they can find and energy resource exporters desire to maintain their hegemony on the political-economic ladder, any source of oil is worth pursuing, no matter how high the cost of extraction. Read more ..

The Race for Alt-Fuel

Global Ethanol Tops 85 Billion Liters as OPEC Complains

March 29th 2010

Science - Jatropha Plantation
Jatropha plantation

Global ethanol production will top 85 billion liters this year. The 2010 forecast predicts a 16 percent increase in global production over 2009 actual production despite a very challenging year for the industry, particularly in the United States, where the industry experienced margins squeezed by low fuel prices and higher than normal feedstock prices.

Despite this difficult year, the United States continues to lead the world in ethanol production and will produce over 45 billion liters of the world’s output this year. The U.S. growth in production continues to be driven in large part by federal laws requiring mandated blending and a Congress obsessed with energy security and energy policy. Rules outlining the so-called “RFS2” were released last month providing for a 36 billion gallon market in the U.S. by 2022.

Not all jurisdictions had an easy time in 2009 convincing governments to adopt biofuels-friendly policies. Europe continues to twist itself into knots over sustainability issues being trumpeted by powerful NGOs on the continent. While the European Commission has mapped out an aggressive plan for growth in biofuels, details of the plan are bogged down in debate over how to measure the green house gas benefits from these new fuels. Despite these apparent challenges there will be modest growth in ethanol output in Europe this year. Read more ..

The Metal's Edge

Renewable Energy Begins at the Mine

March 22nd 2010

Latin American Topics - Bolivian miner

Despite the recent failure of the Copenhagen climate summit to produce a binding treaty for greenhouse gas reduction, in the coming years the share of renewable energy in our energy portfolio is expected to grow significantly. But as the world moves away from fossil fuels, industrial minerals like lithium, cobalt, indium, gallium, tellurium, vanadium, and chromium, to name a few, are becoming increasingly strategic and failure to ensure their supply could not only strip the green revolution of any meaningful content but also create unnecessary national security vulnerabilities for the U.S.
The compact energy-efficient fluorescent light bulbs we will be forced to use since Congress has essentially banned incandescent light bulbs require for their manufacturing europium, cerium, terbium, and yttrium. All four belong to the group of 15 successive metals on the periodic table called rare earth elements, which are also employed in hundreds of technologies and from Blackberries to radars and precision guided bombs. One member of this family, Lanthanum, is a critical element in the production of nickel metal hydride batteries currently used in hybrid cars and electric scooters. Another member, Neodymium, is essential for the production of magnets used in electric car motors as well as in the electric generators of large wind turbines. The magnet utilizing generator of one wind turbine could take as much as half a ton of neodymium.

This is a lot considering that global Neodymium production in 2008 stood at 17,000 tons, most of it used in critical applications like computer drives, mobile phones, MRI machines, fuel cracking catalysts, glass and air conditioners. Cadmium, copper, indium, gallium, selenium, and tellurium are all used in thin-film photovoltaic solar panels. Advanced auto batteries all contain scores of other metals including cobalt, lithium, manganese and nickel. The lithium requirement of President Obama’s plan for the auto industry to deploy one million plug-in hybrids by 2015 is equivalent to the current needs of the global battery market for portable electronics including power tools, cell phones and computers. Read more ..

Oil's Edge

Sexual Predators Increase in Energy Boomtowns

March 15th 2010

Crime Topics - Man in Handcuffs

“Social dysfunction and biological impoverishment” are just some of the social and environmental effects on communities that are economically dependent on oil and gas industries, according to new research.

The findings, published in Conservation Biology, revealed that over a nine year period, the number of registered sex offenders in energy “boomtowns” was two to three times higher than towns dependent on other industries.

The research, carried out by Dr Joel Berger and Dr Jon P. Beckmann, analyzed communities in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) in Wyoming USA, an area often referred to as the largest intact ecosystem in Earth's temperate zone. Many towns across the area are dependent on energy extraction, while others are dependent on agriculture and tourism. The authors assessed whether social and environmental issues are related to the industries that dominate these boomtowns. Read more ..

Nano Edge

Nanotechnology Creates Energy Storage on Paper and Cloth

March 8th 2010

Social Topics - Paper Stack

By dipping ordinary paper or fabric in a special ink infused with nanoparticles, Stanford engineer Yi Cui has found a way to cheaply and efficiently manufacture lightweight paper batteries and supercapacitors (which, like batteries, store energy, but by electrostatic rather than chemical means), as well as stretchable, conductive textiles known as "eTextiles" – capable of storing energy while retaining the mechanical properties of ordinary paper or fabric.

While the technology is still new, Cui's team has envisioned numerous functional uses for their inventions. Homes of the future could one day be lined with energy-storing wallpaper. Gadget lovers would be able to charge their portable appliances on the go, simply plugging them into an outlet woven into their T-shirts. Energy textiles might also be used to create moving-display apparel, reactive high-performance sportswear and wearable power for a soldier's battle gear. Read more ..

The Race for Hydrogen

Bloom Energy Server Offers Out-Of-This-World Promises

March 1st 2010

Energy Topics - Bloom Energy

The recent installment of CBS Television’s 60 Minutes presented a story that couldn’t have been more astonishing and unexpected than if Lesley Stahl announced that a UFO landed in her backyard and that the emerging alien-being presented her with a little black box that would end all of Earth’s electrical energy problems.
It was with that amount of surprise that Ms. Stahl first introduced to the general public a Silicon Valley company named Bloom Energy along with its principal founder and CEO, KR Sridhar. The little black box, which Mr. Sridhar prefers to call a “Bloom Energy Server” is a stand-alone electric generator that requires no connection to any centralized power generating plant and no coal-based or oil-based fuel to operate it. It also produces no offending noises or harmful emissions. Read more ..

Electric Edge

Can Electric Cars Supply the Grid While Parked?

February 22nd 2010

Automotive - Plug-in Vehicle

Think of it as the end of cars' slacker days: No more sitting idle for hours in parking lots or garages racking up payments, but instead earning their keep by helping store power for the electricity grid.

"Cars sit most of the time," said Jeff Stein, a mechanical engineering professor at the University of Michigan. Stein added, "What if it could work for you while it sits there? If you could use a car for something more than just getting to work or going on a family vacation, it would be a whole different way to think about a vehicle, and a whole different way to think about the power grid, too." The University of Michigan is home of the Michigan Memorial Phoenix Energy Institute, which develops, coordinates and promotes multidisciplinary energy research and education at the Ann Arbor-based institution.

Stein leads a National Science Foundation-funded team exploring plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) that not only use grid electricity to meet their power needs, but also the car's potential to store electricity from the wind or sun, or even feed electricity back into the grid, earning money for the owner. Read more ..

The Race for Bio-fuels

EPA Ruling Boosts Ethanol after Fierce Lobbying Effort for Corn-Based Fuels

February 15th 2010

Energy / Environment - Biofuel field

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has just handed a victory to ethanol producers by issuing final regulations that conclude corn-based fuels will meet greenhouse gas standards imposed under a 2007 energy law.

The release of the final regulations follows a fierce campaign by ethanol companies that alleged 2009 draft rules unfairly found that large volumes of ethanol production would not meet targets in the statute for reducing greenhouse gases.

The new rules state that corn-based ethanol will meet a requirement of the 2007 law that they must emit at least 20 percent less in “lifecycle” greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline.

The statute expanded the national biofuels use mandate to reach 36 billion gallons annually by 2022. If the EPA had ruled that corn-based fuels did not meet their emissions target, the fuels could have been frozen out of the market.

The issue has been vital to the ethanol lobby, which feared that an adverse finding could stymie investment and tarnish the fuel’s image.

However, the nation’s current ethanol production — about 12 billion gallons annually — was exempted from the law’s emissions mandate. EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson on Monday denied the agency had bent to pressure, instead arguing that EPA employed better modeling when crafting the final regulations. “We have followed the science,” she told reporters on a conference call. “Our models have become more sophisticated. We have accrued better data.” Read more ..

The Edge of Oil

New Weapon Against Oil Spills

February 8th 2010

Energy / Environment - Oil Spill

An ultra-lightweight sponge made of clay and a bit of high-grade plastic draws oil out of contaminated water but leaves the water behind. And, lab tests show that oil absorbed can be squeezed back out for use.

Case Western Reserve University researchers who made the material, called an aerogel, believe it will effectively clean up spills of all kinds of oils and solvents on factory floors and roadways, rivers, and oceans.

The EPA estimates that 10 to 25 million gallons of oil are spilled annually in this country alone. Spilled oil ruins drinking water, is a fire and explosion hazard, damages farmland and beaches, and destroys wildlife and habitats. The harm can last decades.

The aerogel is made by mixing clay with a polymer and water in a blender, said David Schiraldi, chairman of the Macromolecular Science and Engineering department at the Case School of Engineering.

The mixture is then freeze-dried; air fills the gaps left by the loss of water. The resulting material is super light, comprised of about 96 percent air, 2 percent polymer and 2 percent clay. The oil-absorbing form is just one of a growing list of clay-based aerogels being made in Schiraldi's lab. By adding different polymers, they produce materials with different properties. Read more ..

The Race for Alt Fuel

Methane Hydrate Deposits May Provide Vast New Energy Source

February 1st 2010

Energy Topics - Methane Hydrate

Naturally occurring methane hydrate may represent an enormous source of methane, the main component of natural gas, and could ultimately augment conventional natural gas supplies, says a new congressionally mandated report from the National Research Council. Although a number of challenges require attention before commercial production can be realized, no technical challenges have been identified as insurmountable. Moreover, the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate Research and Development Program has made considerable progress in the past five years toward understanding and developing methane hydrate as a possible energy resource.

"DOE's program and programs in the national and international research community provide increasing confidence from a technical standpoint that some commercial production of methane from methane hydrate could be achieved in the United States before 2025," said Charles Paull, chair of the committee that wrote the report, and senior scientist, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute in California. "With global energy demand projected to increase, unconventional resources such as methane hydrate become important to consider as part of the future U.S. energy portfolio and could help provide more energy security for the United States."

Methane hydrate, a solid composed of methane and water, occurs in abundance on the world's continental margins and in permafrost regions, such as in the Gulf of Mexico and Alaska's North Slope. Although the total global volume of methane in methane hydrate is still debated, estimates yield figures that are significant compared with the global supplies of conventional natural gas. Read more ..

The Obama Edge

Energy Companies Face States Action for Actions on Climate Change Reform

January 25th 2010

Environment Topics - Smokestacks

Energy companies that have fought climate legislation in Congress are also facing threats in the states, where governors and legislatures are acting on their own to curb carbon dioxide emissions.

The latest example is a move by 11 governors from the Northeast and the Mid-Atlantic region to adopt a low-carbon fuel standard (LCFS) to reduce greenhouse gases from cars and trucks, and possibly home heating systems that use oil products.
Emissions from the transportation sector alone account for 30 percent of the carbon dioxide released in those states.

Greenhouse gas emissions from human activity pose “serious risks to human health, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and economies globally and in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic region,” states a memorandum of understanding (MOU) the governors signed on Wednesday.

The goal is to develop a framework to reduce emissions from fuel use by 2011.

Oil companies and industry-backed groups argue there aren’t good alternatives to gasoline. Efforts to lower carbon dioxide emissions from fuel use in the Northeast won’t have an impact on global emissions and could raise energy prices in the region, critics say. Read more ..

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