The Race for Oil and Gas
|Aaron Gluck||April 5th 2010|
Council on Hemispheric Affairs
|The North Pole|
Throughout human history, the Arctic has had little trouble retaining its reputation for austere beauty. However as the irreversible effects of global climate change continue to negatively impact ecosystems worldwide, the once ice blanketed region is rapidly melting away. This climatic shift has caused unexpected political tension between several northern nations.
At the same time, according to the United States Geological Survey (USGS) as much as 90 billion barrels of oil and 1,670 trillion cubic feet of natural gas may be available for extraction beneath the ice barrier. The United States, Canada, Norway, and Russia are at odds as they compete for access to the potential wealth.
When American politicians debate drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, they must realize that the 7.7 billion barrels of oil and the 3.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas to be found there pales in comparison to what the Arctic almost certainly has to offer. In a world where large energy consumers are scrambling for every last drop of oil they can find and energy resource exporters desire to maintain their hegemony on the political-economic ladder, any source of oil is worth pursuing, no matter how high the cost of extraction. Read more ..
The Race for Alt-Fuel
|Bliss Baker||March 29th 2010|
Global ethanol production will top 85 billion liters this year. The 2010 forecast predicts a 16 percent increase in global production over 2009 actual production despite a very challenging year for the industry, particularly in the United States, where the industry experienced margins squeezed by low fuel prices and higher than normal feedstock prices.
Despite this difficult year, the United States continues to lead the world in ethanol production and will produce over 45 billion liters of the world’s output this year. The U.S. growth in production continues to be driven in large part by federal laws requiring mandated blending and a Congress obsessed with energy security and energy policy. Rules outlining the so-called “RFS2” were released last month providing for a 36 billion gallon market in the U.S. by 2022.
Not all jurisdictions had an easy time in 2009 convincing governments to adopt biofuels-friendly policies. Europe continues to twist itself into knots over sustainability issues being trumpeted by powerful NGOs on the continent. While the European Commission has mapped out an aggressive plan for growth in biofuels, details of the plan are bogged down in debate over how to measure the green house gas benefits from these new fuels. Despite these apparent challenges there will be modest growth in ethanol output in Europe this year. Read more ..
The Metal's Edge
Cutting Edge energy writer
Despite the recent failure of the Copenhagen climate summit to produce a binding treaty for greenhouse gas reduction, in the coming years the share of renewable energy in our energy portfolio is expected to grow significantly. But as the world moves away from fossil fuels, industrial minerals like lithium, cobalt, indium, gallium, tellurium, vanadium, and chromium, to name a few, are becoming increasingly strategic and failure to ensure their supply could not only strip the green revolution of any meaningful content but also create unnecessary national security vulnerabilities for the U.S.
The compact energy-efficient fluorescent light bulbs we will be forced to use since Congress has essentially banned incandescent light bulbs require for their manufacturing europium, cerium, terbium, and yttrium. All four belong to the group of 15 successive metals on the periodic table called rare earth elements, which are also employed in hundreds of technologies and from Blackberries to radars and precision guided bombs. One member of this family, Lanthanum, is a critical element in the production of nickel metal hydride batteries currently used in hybrid cars and electric scooters. Another member, Neodymium, is essential for the production of magnets used in electric car motors as well as in the electric generators of large wind turbines. The magnet utilizing generator of one wind turbine could take as much as half a ton of neodymium.
This is a lot considering that global Neodymium production in 2008 stood at 17,000 tons, most of it used in critical applications like computer drives, mobile phones, MRI machines, fuel cracking catalysts, glass and air conditioners. Cadmium, copper, indium, gallium, selenium, and tellurium are all used in thin-film photovoltaic solar panels. Advanced auto batteries all contain scores of other metals including cobalt, lithium, manganese and nickel. The lithium requirement of President Obama’s plan for the auto industry to deploy one million plug-in hybrids by 2015 is equivalent to the current needs of the global battery market for portable electronics including power tools, cell phones and computers. Read more ..
|Ben Norman||March 15th 2010|
“Social dysfunction and biological impoverishment” are just some of the social and environmental effects on communities that are economically dependent on oil and gas industries, according to new research.
The findings, published in Conservation Biology, revealed that over a nine year period, the number of registered sex offenders in energy “boomtowns” was two to three times higher than towns dependent on other industries.
The research, carried out by Dr Joel Berger and Dr Jon P. Beckmann, analyzed communities in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) in Wyoming USA, an area often referred to as the largest intact ecosystem in Earth's temperate zone. Many towns across the area are dependent on energy extraction, while others are dependent on agriculture and tourism. The authors assessed whether social and environmental issues are related to the industries that dominate these boomtowns. Read more ..
By dipping ordinary paper or fabric in a special ink infused with nanoparticles, Stanford engineer Yi Cui has found a way to cheaply and efficiently manufacture lightweight paper batteries and supercapacitors (which, like batteries, store energy, but by electrostatic rather than chemical means), as well as stretchable, conductive textiles known as "eTextiles" – capable of storing energy while retaining the mechanical properties of ordinary paper or fabric.
While the technology is still new, Cui's team has envisioned numerous functional uses for their inventions. Homes of the future could one day be lined with energy-storing wallpaper. Gadget lovers would be able to charge their portable appliances on the go, simply plugging them into an outlet woven into their T-shirts. Energy textiles might also be used to create moving-display apparel, reactive high-performance sportswear and wearable power for a soldier's battle gear. Read more ..
The Race for Hydrogen
|Marc J. Rauch||March 1st 2010|
The Auto Channel co-publisher
The recent installment of CBS Television’s 60 Minutes
presented a story that couldn’t have been more astonishing and unexpected than if Lesley Stahl announced that a UFO landed in her backyard and that the emerging alien-being presented her with a little black box that would end all of Earth’s electrical energy problems.
It was with that amount of surprise that Ms. Stahl first introduced to the general public a Silicon Valley company named Bloom Energy along with its principal founder and CEO, KR Sridhar. The little black box, which Mr. Sridhar prefers to call a “Bloom Energy Server” is a stand-alone electric generator that requires no connection to any centralized power generating plant and no coal-based or oil-based fuel to operate it. It also produces no offending noises or harmful emissions. Read more ..
|Sue Nichols||February 22nd 2010|
Think of it as the end of cars' slacker days: No more sitting idle for hours in parking lots or garages racking up payments, but instead earning their keep by helping store power for the electricity grid.
"Cars sit most of the time," said Jeff Stein, a mechanical engineering professor at the University of Michigan. Stein added, "What if it could work for you while it sits there? If you could use a car for something more than just getting to work or going on a family vacation, it would be a whole different way to think about a vehicle, and a whole different way to think about the power grid, too." The University of Michigan is home of the Michigan Memorial Phoenix Energy Institute, which develops, coordinates and promotes multidisciplinary energy research and education at the Ann Arbor-based institution.
Stein leads a National Science Foundation-funded team exploring plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) that not only use grid electricity to meet their power needs, but also the car's potential to store electricity from the wind or sun, or even feed electricity back into the grid, earning money for the owner. Read more ..
The Race for Bio-fuels
|Ben Geman||February 15th 2010|
The Hill correspondent
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has just handed a victory to ethanol producers by issuing final regulations that conclude corn-based fuels will meet greenhouse gas standards imposed under a 2007 energy law.
The release of the final regulations follows a fierce campaign by ethanol companies that alleged 2009 draft rules unfairly found that large volumes of ethanol production would not meet targets in the statute for reducing greenhouse gases.
The new rules state that corn-based ethanol will meet a requirement of the 2007 law that they must emit at least 20 percent less in “lifecycle” greenhouse gas emissions than gasoline.
The statute expanded the national biofuels use mandate to reach 36 billion gallons annually by 2022. If the EPA had ruled that corn-based fuels did not meet their emissions target, the fuels could have been frozen out of the market.
The issue has been vital to the ethanol lobby, which feared that an adverse finding could stymie investment and tarnish the fuel’s image.
However, the nation’s current ethanol production — about 12 billion gallons annually — was exempted from the law’s emissions mandate. EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson on Monday denied the agency had bent to pressure, instead arguing that EPA employed better modeling when crafting the final regulations. “We have followed the science,” she told reporters on a conference call. “Our models have become more sophisticated. We have accrued better data.” Read more ..
The Edge of Oil
|Kevin Mayhood||February 8th 2010|
An ultra-lightweight sponge made of clay and a bit of high-grade plastic draws oil out of contaminated water but leaves the water behind. And, lab tests show that oil absorbed can be squeezed back out for use.
Case Western Reserve University researchers who made the material, called an aerogel, believe it will effectively clean up spills of all kinds of oils and solvents on factory floors and roadways, rivers, and oceans.
The EPA estimates that 10 to 25 million gallons of oil are spilled annually in this country alone. Spilled oil ruins drinking water, is a fire and explosion hazard, damages farmland and beaches, and destroys wildlife and habitats. The harm can last decades.
The aerogel is made by mixing clay with a polymer and water in a blender, said David Schiraldi, chairman of the Macromolecular Science and Engineering department at the Case School of Engineering.
The mixture is then freeze-dried; air fills the gaps left by the loss of water. The resulting material is super light, comprised of about 96 percent air, 2 percent polymer and 2 percent clay. The oil-absorbing form is just one of a growing list of clay-based aerogels being made in Schiraldi's lab. By adding different polymers, they produce materials with different properties. Read more ..
The Race for Alt Fuel
|Jennifer Walsh||February 1st 2010|
Naturally occurring methane hydrate may represent an enormous source of methane, the main component of natural gas, and could ultimately augment conventional natural gas supplies, says a new congressionally mandated report from the National Research Council. Although a number of challenges require attention before commercial production can be realized, no technical challenges have been identified as insurmountable. Moreover, the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate Research and Development Program has made considerable progress in the past five years toward understanding and developing methane hydrate as a possible energy resource.
"DOE's program and programs in the national and international research community provide increasing confidence from a technical standpoint that some commercial production of methane from methane hydrate could be achieved in the United States before 2025," said Charles Paull, chair of the committee that wrote the report, and senior scientist, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute in California. "With global energy demand projected to increase, unconventional resources such as methane hydrate become important to consider as part of the future U.S. energy portfolio and could help provide more energy security for the United States."
Methane hydrate, a solid composed of methane and water, occurs in abundance on the world's continental margins and in permafrost regions, such as in the Gulf of Mexico and Alaska's North Slope. Although the total global volume of methane in methane hydrate is still debated, estimates yield figures that are significant compared with the global supplies of conventional natural gas. Read more ..
The Obama Edge
|Jim Snyder||January 25th 2010|
The Hill correspondent
Energy companies that have fought climate legislation in Congress are also facing threats in the states, where governors and legislatures are acting on their own to curb carbon dioxide emissions.
The latest example is a move by 11 governors from the Northeast and the Mid-Atlantic region to adopt a low-carbon fuel standard (LCFS) to reduce greenhouse gases from cars and trucks, and possibly home heating systems that use oil products.
Emissions from the transportation sector alone account for 30 percent of the carbon dioxide released in those states.
Greenhouse gas emissions from human activity pose “serious risks to human health, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and economies globally and in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic region,” states a memorandum of understanding (MOU) the governors signed on Wednesday.
The goal is to develop a framework to reduce emissions from fuel use by 2011.
Oil companies and industry-backed groups argue there aren’t good alternatives to gasoline. Efforts to lower carbon dioxide emissions from fuel use in the Northeast won’t have an impact on global emissions and could raise energy prices in the region, critics say. Read more ..
|Steven Kopits||January 18th 2010|
Cutting Edge contributor
In 2010, oil demand will resume its upward march. OPEC will respond by increasing supply—but the increase will come too late to keep prices down as emerging-market consumption pushes them up. In the extreme case, resurgent oil prices could drive the U.S. economy into a double-dip downturn. Here's what to expect, and what a limited oil supply will mean for the United States and the world.
As the global economy recovers, oil demand will continue to strengthen from the 85 million barrels per day that it hit in November. That's already 4 percent higher than it was at the recession's trough in May of last year. As a result, inventories both onshore and offshore have begun to decline. The number of tankers storing crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico, for example, fell to seven in October from a high of 22 in May. Read more ..
The Auto Edge
|Marc J. Rauch||January 11th 2010|
The Auto Channel co-publisher
This past week Ford Motor Company's president and CEO Alan Mulally gave the opening keynote speech at the 2010 Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. The purpose of the presentation was to unveil an entire suite of new SYNC signature brand in-car innovations.
While the technology is undeniably exciting and amazing, it was darkly ironic given the amount of commotion that is currently going on around the country to try and eliminate “driving distractions.” If you think that the use of cell phones and texting has already created a safety problem, then you’re going to be shocked by what Ford now has in mind. Mr. Mulally actually seemed to champion and encourage the use of texting while driving when he rather gleefully announced that “Texting is now the favored form of communication for every age group,” within his description of Ford’s success in putting more than a million SYNC-equipped cars on American roads in 2009.
Incidentally, Ford wasn’t alone in exhibiting new “dashboard distractions” at CES; Kia showcased an elaborate Microsoft in-car multimedia system called UYO (which somehow stands for Your Voice), along with about 300 other in-vehicle exhibitors touting their own innovative products. Read more ..
|Ben Geman||January 4th 2010|
The Hill Correspondent
Senate Democrats will face a problem when they return in January every bit as tough as crafting the healthcare bill: Assembling a climate and energy package that can be shoehorned into the election-year calendar.
Imposing limits on greenhouse gases is a White House and Democratic priority, but it’s stuck in line behind healthcare, Wall Street reform and jobs legislation.
It’s also become increasingly apparent since the Copenhagen climate summit that the Senate will go forward in a dramatically different direction than the House, which approved its own climate bill last summer. Read more ..
|Robert Banick||December 28th 2009|
Council on Hemispheric Analysis
|Bogota Bus Rapid Transit|
Over the past fifteen years, cities throughout Latin America have achieved a modest, yet significant revolution in urban design through the adoption and refinement of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems. Promising the benefits of developed world transit systems at developing world prices, BRT has quickly become a popular policy initiative among national and municipal level Latin American policymakers charged with reducing the crippling congestion, choking pollution, and alarming accident rates characteristic of the largely unregulated bus transit systems in most cities throughout the region. Pioneered in the mid-sized Brazilian city of Curitiba in the 1970s, Bus Rapid Transit increased bus speeds and improved road safety by placing high-capacity buses within committed bus lanes which channel buses to a series of fixed stations, similar to light-rail or metro systems. Inspired by the success of Curitiba’s system, cities such as Bogotá and Quito have more recently made BRT the linchpin of their transit network, to considerable acclaim from the riding public and international observers alike. Read more ..
The Rail's Edge
|Matthew Lewis||December 21st 2009|
Center for Public Integrity
The U.S. High Speed Rail Association’s October conference opened like any large Washington gathering. The congressmen were seated in the front row. A powerhouse Beltway law firm laid out prints of its lobbyists’ biographies on a display table. And as the upscale J.W. Marriott meeting room went dark, a short film offered romantic visions of bullet trains in America’s future.
As far back as 1965, planners, transportation experts, visionaries, and American train buffs — President Lyndon Johnson among them — have coveted the sort of sleek high-speed trains that crisscross much of Europe and Asia at speeds of more than 180 miles per hour. But after millions and millions of dollars spent studying, planning, and mostly falling short, the American incarnation of high-speed passenger rail is but a single line that travels from Washington to Boston at an average speed of under 80 miles per hour.
Now, though, the Obama administration is looking to change all that, starting with $8 billion in federal stimulus money to be awarded starting this winter. Equally captivated, Congress is considering adding as much as $4 billion more in next year’s budget. The House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee chairman, James Oberstar, a Minnesota Democrat, is talking $50 billion after that. Read more ..
|Ben Geman||December 14th 2009|
The Hill Correspondent
The House is slated to vote in the coming days on bipartisan Iran sanctions legislation that targets companies supplying Iran with gasoline or helping the country expand its refining system. Iran is a major oil producer, but imports up to 40 percent of its gasoline because it lacks adequate refining capacity.
The plan is among several under consideration in Congress and the White House to pressure Iran over its nuclear program. The bill, sponsored by Foreign Affairs Committee Chairman Howard Berman (D-Calif.), has 343 co-sponsors. It would allow sanctions against companies that ship gasoline and other refined products to Iran, and also targets related services such as insurance and financing.
A bipartisan Iran sanctions package that the Senate Banking Committee unanimously approved in late October also targets the country's refined petroleum imports. However, the plans retain White House waiver authority that already applies to other energy sanctions under the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996. Read more ..
|Simon Henderson||December 7th 2009|
Late on November 25, just before the start of the Islamic Eid festival and, coincidentally, Thanksgiving in the United States, Dubai's flagship investment company Dubai World announced that it would be requesting a six-month delay on paying its debts. Within hours, Dubai's reputation was being rewritten, and its ambition to be a financial center, building on its historic reputation as a focal point for regional trade, was being recast.
Uncertainty continued on November 30, when the Dubai government said that it would not guarantee Dubai World's debt. In any event, the larger story has been the nervousness of world financial markets, which are now also evincing worry about the debt of countries like Greece or Ireland. Within the Middle East, the focus is on the extent of support that Dubai will receive from Abu Dhabi, the neighboring -- and richer -- member sheikhdom of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), whether other city-states like Bahrain and Qatar are also at risk, and whether Dubai's links with Iran will change as a result of its financial situation. Read more ..
The Edge of Lithium
|Megan MacAdams||November 30th 2009|
Council on Hemispheric Analysis
According to Bolivian President Evo Morales, lithium is not only important to his country’s economic future but is “the hope of humanity,” as the lightweight metal efficiently stores energy capable of powering the eco-friendly cars of the future. Bolivia’s lithium reserves have made headlines in the past and once again currently. The country holds a total of 5.4 million tons of lithium, which is nearly half of the world’s known supply.
The Bolivian government now appears to be moving ahead with increasingly concrete plans for extraction and production of the metal. Experts from around the globe who recently gathered in Bolivia discussed new scientific findings and the possibilities herein contained.
Meanwhile, the U.S. and many other nations are preparing to meet in Copenhagen this December to discuss climate change and alternative energy policies. In order to understand recent developments in Bolivia’s lithium policy, it is necessary to examine new advancements in lithium technology, Morales’ overall policy of nationalization, alternative energy plans in the U.S. and Spain, and some of the concerns that have been raised.
New Lithium Technologies
According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), one quarter of the lithium mined last year was used solely for lithium batteries, which operate portable electronic devices. The already rapidly increasing demand for lithium, the world’s lightest metal, which has a prodigious capacity for storing energy, is expected to rise dramatically as demand for electric cars, an alternative to gas-powered vehicles, are mass-produced and take to the roads. Read more ..
The Race for Alt-Fuel
|Daniel Parry||November 23rd 2009|
Scientists from the Marine Biogeochemistry and Geology and Geophysics sections of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) organized and led a team of university and government scientists on an Arctic expedition to initiate methane hydrate exploration in the Beaufort Sea and determine the spatial variation of sediment contribution to Arctic climate change.
Utilizing the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Polar Sea as a research platform, three cross-shelf transects were surveyed and sampled off Alaska's North Slope at Hammerhead, Thetis Island and Halkett, representing three regions of the Alaskan shelf. The expedition integrated expertise in coastal geophysics, sediment geochemistry, dissolved and free methane fluxes through the water column and into the atmosphere, sediment and water column microbiology and biogeochemistry and detailed characterization of the sub-seafloor geology.
“The objective of the sampling is to help determine variations in the shallow sediment and water column methane sources, methane cycling and the subsequent flux to the atmosphere,” said Richard Coffin, chief scientist, NRL Chemistry Division. Read more ..
|Simon Henderson||November 16th 2009|
Among the policy suggestions for heading off Iran's emergence as a military nuclear power is the notion that Saudi Arabia should use its position—as the world's largest oil exporter and effective leader of the OPEC oil cartel—to apply pressure. The kingdom is increasingly concerned that nuclear weapons capability would confer on Iran the status of regional hegemon. But any hope that Saudi Arabia would intervene to stop that possibility, by pumping extra supplies to lower prices and decrease Iran's oil revenues, is probably misplaced.
Historically, Saudi Arabia has claimed that it will not use its leading role in the oil market for political purposes. In a June 2001 interview with the Financial Times, then Crown Prince Abdullah said: “Oil is a strategic commodity upon which the prosperity of the industrial as well as the developing countries depends. Our oil policy is a prudent one, seeking a balance between the interests of producers and consumers. It serves no purpose to speak about oil outside this framework.” Read more ..
Kicking our Oil Addiction
|Nancy Cruz||November 9th 2009|
Council on Hemispheric Analysis
Mexico is currently facing one of the biggest economic recessions in the country’s two hundred-year history of independence. Some Mexican policy makers blame the economic crisis on this year’s decrease in tourism, while others attribute it to the continued dependence of the Mexican economy on the United States, pointing to its neighbor’s recession as a principal cause for the country’s woes. Nonetheless, Mexico’s plummet in oil production and the decline in the price of oil are two main contributors to its present economic downfall. While other countries have begun to pull out of the recession, it appears that the fall in oil production and prices have further led to an ongoing decline in Mexico’s economy, which the country’s planners are finding difficult to reverse.
Current Oil Situation
Oil is at the heart of the Mexican economy. Profits on its extraction are the country’s number one revenue, accounting for approximately 40 percent of Mexico’s total revenues. Due to the decline in the price of oil that began last year with the escalation of the global recession, Mexico’s oil-dependent economy has suffered grievously. Prior to the sag in oil prices, when other oil producing countries were taking advantage of the tremendous peak in prices, Mexico was hit particularly hard; government officials reported that last year’s drop in oil production cost the Mexican government an estimated US$20 billion in lost revenues. Read more ..
The Race for Biofuel
|Nicholas Elledge||November 2nd 2009|
Council on Hemispheric Affairs
In his seminal work, Sugarcane Energy Use: The Cuban Case, Alonso-Pippo Walfrido wrote: "Central America and the Caribbean, historical sugar-producing economies where the sugar-ethanol infrastructure already has a foundation, labor costs are low, and the political conditions are more or less stable– offers the best near-term potential for large-scale sugarcane ethanol production. This is a market opportunity which Cuba, with the longest experience of sugar–ethanol and sugarcane derivates production in the region, is positioned to take advantage of.”
As the result of a precipitous contraction in the Cuban economy, Cubans have recently experienced crippling energy cutbacks and other shortfalls that are reminiscent of the devastating hardships of the “Special Period,” and industries have continued to falter due to the evaporation of credit and investment flows which largely dried up after the break-up of the Soviet empire. In the first half of 2009, the Obama Administration launched a series of modest initiatives aimed at normalizing U.S.-Cuba relations, most recently exemplified by the loosening of restrictions on travel by Cuba-Americans, lifting controls on remittances, and giving the nod to U.S. telecommunication investments on the island. Read more ..
|Diane Swanbrow||October 26th 2009|
A new survey released shows widespread consumer interest in buying plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). But the cost of the cars is much more influential than environmental and other non-economic factors as a predictor of purchase probabilities.
The survey of a nationally representative sample of 2,513 adults age 18 was part of the Reuters/University of Michigan Surveys of Consumers. The findings were released at The Business of Plugging In: A Plug-In Electric Vehicle Conference in Detroit.
Overall, when given no cost or fuel-saving estimates, 42 percent of those surveyed said there was at least some chance that they would buy a PHEV sometime in the future. The researchers then asked respondents to rate the likelihood of purchasing a PHEV under three different cost-scenarios, each time assuming they would save 75 percent in fuel costs compared to a traditional, gasoline-powered vehicle. With each successive doubling of the price of PHEVs, the probability of purchase fell by 16 percentage points. Read more ..
|Martin Barillas||October 19th 2009|
Cutting Edge Senior Correspondent
The oil princes of Saudi Arabia became literal beggars at the United Nations climate talks that began at Bangkok on September 28. The oil kingdom demanded that they, along with other OPEC member nations, receive subsidies for revenues to be lost due to potential global warming.
Speaking on October 8, Mohammad S. Al Sabban, who led the Saudi delegation at the talks, claimed that a report by the International Energy Agency on OPEC revenues was seriously skewed. According to the IEA, OPEC revenues would still increase by more than $23 trillion between 2008 and 2030. This is four times the amount revenues increased between 1985 and 2007. Al Sabban said of Saudi Arabia “We are among the economically vulnerable countries,…This is very serious for us. He went on to say “We are in the process of diversifying our economy but this will take a long time. We don’t have too many resources.” Read more ..
The Rail's Edge
|Ronald D. Utt||October 12th 2009|
In April, President Barack Obama confirmed his commitment to fund a high-speed rail (HSR) program in the United States and extolled the potential benefits of the $8 billion for HSR that Congress included in the stimulus package. That commitment grew by another $5 billion ($1 billion per year) when the President released his budget for FY 2010, and in an act of almost unprecedented fiscal mushrooming, the House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure (T&I) proposed to add another $50 billion. Yet, according to recent comments by the head of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), little of these federal monies may go toward "real" HSR but instead appear likely to benefit some of the nation's for-profit freight railroads to achieve modestly higher speeds for existing, half-full Amtrak trains running on their tracks. Read more ..
The Race for Biofuels
|Jennifer Donovan||October 5th 2009|
When society jumps on a bandwagon, even for a good cause, there may be unintended consequences. The unintended consequence of crop-based biofuels may be the loss of wildlife habitat, particularly that of the birds who call this country's grasslands home, say researchers from Michigan Technological University and The Nature Conservancy.
In a paper published in the October 2009 issue of the journal BioScience, David Flaspohler, Joseph Fargione and colleagues analyze the impacts on wildlife of the burgeoning conversion of grasslands to corn. They conclude that the ongoing conversion of grasslands to corn for ethanol production is posing a very real threat to the wildlife whose habitat is being transformed. One potential solution: Use diverse native prairie plants to produce bioenergy instead of a single agricultural crop like corn.
"There are ways to grow biofuel that are more benign," said Flaspohler, an associate professor in the School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science at Michigan Tech. "Our advice would be to think broadly and holistically about the approach you use to solve a problem and to carefully consider its potential long-term impacts."
The rapidly growing demand for corn ethanol, fueled by a government mandate to produce 136 billion liters of biofuel by 2022—more than 740 percent more than was produced in 2006—and federal subsidies to farmers to grow corn, is causing a land-use change on a scale not seen since virgin prairies were plowed and enormous swaths of the country's forests were first cut down to grow food crops, the researchers say.
"Bioenergy is the most land-intensive way to produce energy, so we need to consider the land use implications of our energy policies," said Fargione, lead scientist for The Nature Conservancy's North America Region. Read more ..
|Gal Luft||September 28th 2009|
Cutting Edge Energy Desk
While Washington is mulling over what to do next in order to weaken Iran economically, this summer the Islamic Republic has taught us a lesson in strategic maneuvering, taking major steps to bolster its economy and geopolitical posture by positioning itself as an indispensable energy supplier to hundreds of millions of people.
Last May, I described how after 14 years of negotiations, Iran, which has the world’s second largest natural gas reserves, signed a deal to connect its economy with its eastern neighbor, Pakistan, via a 1,300-mile natural gas pipeline. Both Iran and Pakistan hope to extend the pipeline into India and perhaps even into China. This would not only give Iran a foothold in the Asian gas market and ensure that millions of Pakistanis, Indians and perhaps Chinese are beholden to Iran’s gas, but it would also provide Iran with an economic lifeline and the diplomatic protection energy-dependent economies typically grant their suppliers. Read more ..
Kicking our Oil Addiction
|Brett Kitchen||September 21st 2009|
The largest U.S subsidies to fossil fuels are attributed to tax breaks that aid foreign oil production, according to research to be released on Friday by the Environmental Law Institute (ELI) in partnership with the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. The study, which reviewed fossil fuel and energy subsidies for Fiscal Years 2002-2008, reveals that the lion's share of energy subsidies supported energy sources that emit high levels of greenhouse gases.
The research demonstrates that the federal government provided substantially larger subsidies to fossil fuels than to renewables. Fossil fuels benefited from approximately $72 billion over the seven-year period, while subsidies for renewable fuels totaled only $29 billion. More than half the subsidies for renewables—$16.8 billion—are attributable to corn-based ethanol, the climate effects of which are hotly disputed. Of the fossil fuel subsidies, $70.2 billion went to traditional sources—such as coal and oil—and $2.3 billion went to carbon capture and storage, which is designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants. Thus, energy subsidies highly favored energy sources that emit high levels of greenhouse gases over sources that would decrease our climate footprint. Read more ..
Kicking our Oil Addiction
|Gal Luft||September 14th 2009|
Cutting Edge Energy Desk
Many Americans perceive the fight for energy security and the effort to reduce our oil dependence as synonymous with the effort to curb greenhouse gas emissions. Politicians talking about energy often bind together energy security and the environment, creating the impression that using less oil would not only slow down the transfer of wealth to oil-exporting regimes, but also the melting of the icecaps.
To some degree this is true. Many components of energy policy, like increased fuel efficiency, the use of mass transit, the shift to some renewable fuels, and the electrification of transportation, can offer both security and environmental benefits.
If a car uses less gasoline, fewer dollars migrate abroad, and fewer tons of carbon dioxide release into the atmosphere.
Greens and hawks have much to agree on in pursuing their respective goals. But these two constituencies are not as aligned as many tend to think.
Energy security and greenhouse gas reduction are not complementary issues. Many of the technologies and policies that could assist one could well be an imped iment to the other.
Mapping the Interests
Let's begin with environmentalists. In the short history of the 21st century, no issue has risen from near obscurity to the center of our public discourse as quickly as global warming. What started as chatter among some concerned scientists and die hard environmentalists is now called "the challenge of our generation," consuming a bandwidth equivalent of war among world leaders. Read more ..
The Race for Alt Fuel
|Karin Kloosterman||September 7th 2009|
An underwater technique for storing highly volatile petroleum gases in an effort to prevent accidents and terror attacks. An Israeli company is developing the project.
When a freak propane gas explosion left Martha Stewart's dog dead this year, questions about the safety of propane tanks and trucks were on the public mind. But accidents like this are only a small part of the story. At cities across the US, and much of the developed world, you'll find even larger tanks, where propane and butane gases are stored before being transferred to other facilities or pipes.
Aside from the usual risk of a spark, or fire, these large gas facilities are also vulnerable to terrorist attack. A serious explosion at a gas facility in a US city could cause a large-scale human disaster.Now, an Israeli entrepreneur could have an answer - storing the gas under the sea. Ofir Sarid, founder and CEO of SeaGen Systems, has come up with a solution that can pipe liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) like propane and butane, deep underwater, and store it far from shore, keeping the gas away from the hands of terrorists, and safe from accidental explosions. Read more ..
Kicking our Oil Addiction
Cutting Edge Energy Desk
One hundred and fifty years ago, give or take a few days, in the sleepy lumber town of Titusville, Pa., “Colonel” Edwin Drake was persistently hammering a pipe into the ground in search of a replacement for depleting whale oil as a fuel for lamps. At a depth of 69 feet below ground he finally struck oil, and the world changed forever. Over a century and a half his 25 barrels per day well would give rise to a global industry of 85 million barrels per day, making oil the world's most strategic commodity, one that supplies 40 percent of the world's energy.
Just like in Drake's own life — he died two decades later penniless — oil has been both a curse and a blessing for humanity. It has been a driver of seminal events and a backdrop behind great powers' foreign policy. During World War I, “the Allies had floated to victory upon a wave of oil,” as the British statesman Lord Curzon noted. The post-war contention between Turkey and Britain in the early 1920s over Iraq's oil-rich Mosul, Imperial Japan's expansionist policy of the 1930s that led to a four-year war in the Pacific, Adolf Hitler's invasion of Russia, America's repeated military interventions in the Middle East and the “New Great Game” currently taking place in Central Asia have all been tied to oil dependence. Read more ..
|John Westwood||August 24th 2009|
Europe, despite the growth of other regions, remains one of the world's largest offshore producers. Nearly 600 offshore fields have been developed off Europe, involving a similar number of platforms, about 400 subsea wells, over 200 subsea templates, and some 1,000 pipelines.
During the past decade the corporate scene has changed dramatically as declining production and high costs have forced the original developers, the oil majors, into other regions. That exodus opened the way for a new breed of smaller player better geared to economically extracting the remaining reserves from a multitude of small fields and squeezing the last drop out of massively depleted existing ones. Read more ..
The Nuclear Edge
|Jack Spencer||August 17th 2009|
On July 31, Congressman Joe Pitts (R-PA) introduced the Streamline America's Future Energy Nuclear Act, which brings a fresh approach to U.S. nuclear energy policy. Instead of the well-worn subsidy-first approach that often dominates congressional attempts to support nuclear energy, Congressman Pitts's bill focuses on reforming the arduous regulatory and policy environment so that the nuclear renaissance can flourish. Read more ..
|Steven Kopits||August 10th 2009|
Cutting Edge contributor
Leading indicators suggest that global oil consumption will bottom out shortly and that pricing power will return to OPEC by late summer or early autumn. Oil demand remains off long-term trends lines and is determined primarily by the continuing effects of the recession. Consequently, forecasting oil markets remains more dependent on
understanding recession economics than anything to do with oil per se.
Therefore, any prudent analysis of oil demand and pricing must first and foremost at the course of the recession.
Scenarios for the evolution of the global economy are based on two conflicting visions. One narrative sees a financial crisis stemming from an asset bubble, and ultimately, the bankruptcy of investment bank Lehman Brothers. The other version, more prevalent in both media and policy circles, envisions an economic crisis driven by excessive debt, particularly in the United States. Here’s how the narratives play: Read more ..
The Edge of Solar
|Martin Barillas||August 3rd 2009|
Cutting Edge Senior Contributor
|Papal solar panels|
Pope Benedict XVI's home near Regensburg, Germany will become a solar-power generator. Workers donated some 580 square feet of photovoltaic solar panels to install on his house's rooftop. The solar panels should generate about 5,800 kilowatt hours of energy a year, which corresponds to saving 11 barrels of petroleum. Besides, the project is expected to produce income for the pontiff in the amount of $3,500 a year, by providing the German electricity grid with energy. According to Vatican sources, the money produced will go to an association that offers job training to disadvantaged young people.
The pope approved the project, but no church funds were used. Local workers donated the panels and students at a trade school installed the panels. The pope had the house built in 1970 in the Pentling suburb of Regensburg after he moved there to teach at the University of Regensburg. Read more ..
Edge of Energy
|Steven R. Kopits||July 27th 2009|
Cutting Edge Contributor
In seeking to explain the run up in oil prices from 2004 to 2008, commentators often turn to ‘speculation’ as the primary cause. While speculation—or at least a kind of piling-on—may have explained the very late stages of the oil price rally, the willingness to attribute oil prices primarily to financial investors, as the CBS news show 60 Minutes did a few months back, risks drawing the wrong lesson from the period.
Let’s rewind the clock and recall the events of the time. After many years of solid growth, oil production plateaued in October 2004. Regardless of the price level, the oil supply simply stopped responding, and from then on, the world had to make do with broadly flat supplies. Ordinarily, the expansion of the world’s economy would be accompanied by increased energy consumption and an inelastic oil supply might have been expected to hinder economic development. It didn’t. In the four years to mid-2008, the world economy expanded by 18 percent. The global economy boomed, even without new oil. Read more ..
Edge of Energy
|Steven Kopits||July 20th 2009|
Cutting Edge Contributor
The events of recent months have exposed the differing approaches to energy as practiced by China and the US. China has lent Brazilian oil giant Petrobras US $10 billion to further its offshore exploration work in return for a flow of oil equaling 160,000 b/d. It has lent Russian oil firm Rosneft $15 billion and Russian pipeline operator Transneft $10 billion for agreeing to supply 300,000 b/d from new fields in East Siberia for the next 20 years. In Venezuela, China is to contribute $8 billion to a strategic fund for oil development that aims primarily to increase Venezuelan oil exports to China by 650,000 b/d by 2015.
China is taking the long view, paying money now to ensure growth in the supply of oil and long-term access to its share.
By contrast, the Obama administration announced measures intended to achieve greater payments from oil E&P companies operating in the core area for US oil production — the Gulf of Mexico. The administration has argued that oil companies failed to pay royalties which might otherwise have been expected. While the US government is entitled to sell its societal resources on fair and commercial terms, the net result nevertheless will be to make oil production more expensive in the US. Furthermore, the US government has delayed opening other offshore areas to incremental exploration and possible production.
So while the Chinese are forging ahead to assure access to production around the globe, the US is seeking to reduce or limit its domestic productive capacity. Why the differences in approach? Read more ..
The Race for BioFuels
|Neil B. Goldstein||July 13th 2009|
Cutting Edge Contributor
In the movie "Field of Dreams," Ray Kinsella (Kevin Kostner) hears a voice saying "if you build it, they will come." Following his dream, he builds an elaborate baseball stadium in the middle of an Iowa corn field, and lo and behold, the Chicago Black Sox return from the afterlife to play ball on his field, and his stands are soon filled with fans. For more than a year, a number of proponents of biofuels have suggested a similar approach for solving America’s energy crisis: require auto manufacturers to produce "flexible fuel" vehicles that can run on alcohol fuels, and the demand that these vehicles will create for alcohol fuels will result in the production of additional billions of gallons of alternative liquid fuels that will replace gasoline and help end our nation’s dependence on foreign oil. Rather than "build it, they will come," their approach has been "make Detroit build cars that can run on alternative fuels, and the alternative fuels will come."
Until now, the problem with achieving this vision has been that officials in Washington have been slow to levy such a mandate on the auto industry and on American auto buyers, based merely a dream, and absent a guarantee, that these alcohol fuels will be produced. Just this past May, the House Energy and Commerce Committee resisted incorporating in the House climate bill such a mandate for flexible fuel vehicles—proposed by Congressman Eliot Engel in the form of the Open Fuel Standards Act of 2009 (HR1476)—because of auto industry objections that the fuels will not be available. The auto lobbyists’ argument was given particular weight because of the current economic downturn, and because of fears that producing alcohol fuels would either end up raising the price of corn, require the importation of ethanol from Brazil where fragile rain forests would be injured (again spurious), or increase the production of methanol from coal, which would increase the emission of greenhouse gases. What the Committee, and its Chairman Henry Waxman, were willing to agree to in the face of these barriers was a watered down version of the Engel proposal, providing the Secretary of Transportation the authority to require the production of some flexible fuel cars, but refusing to set a specific target for how many such cars would have to be produced. Read more ..
Kicking our Oil Addiction
|Steven Kopits||July 5th 2009|
Cutting Edge Contributor
Saudi Oil Minister, al-Naimi, has warned that under-investment in oil capacity may lead to a return to $150/barrel oil, “or even worse.” The Paris-based IEA has also warned of price shocks due to resurgent demand and restricted investment. Will a high price environment truly emerge, or are price spikes followed by brutal recessions more likely, as experienced in the last year? And what is more important, the absolute price of oil or the rapidity of the price increases? A tour through the historical record may provide some insight. Read more ..
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