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American Authors

Tennessee Williams, Remembered

September 23rd 2011

Book Topics - Thomas Lanier Tennesee Williams

Tennessee Williams is the subject of a retrospective this October at the University of Michigan. 2011 marks the centenary anniversary of the birth of Thomas Lanier "Tennessee" Williams—one of the greatest and most influential of American playwrights and screen writers. Next month in celebration of Williams' career, the University of Michigan's Department of Theatre and Drama is sponsoring a conference about Williams from October 12 to 15, including a keynote address, panel discussions, and a production of the rarely staged "Suddenly, Last Summer." On October 15, there will be a screening of the 1959 film made from the play. Discussion of the film will follow the screening.

Tennessee Williams was born March 26, 1911 in Columbus, Mississippi, and reared in St. Louis, where his father moved to work in a shoe factory. He attended the University of Missouri before being forced by his father to withdraw and work in the shoe factory. In 1937, two of his plays were staged by a theater company in St. Louis, and the next year he graduated from the University of Iowa. In 1939 he moved to New Orleans to write for the federally-funded Works Progress Administration (WPA), and while in New Orleans he decided to use Tennessee Williams as his professional name—Tennessee being the state of his father's origin. He had a bitter defeat in 1940 when a Boston tryout of his play "Battle of Angels" failed. But then came success. Read more ..


Author Tours

Author Edwin Black lectures in Terre Haute on Indiana's Eugenic Connections to Nazi Germany

September 21st 2011

Contributors / Staff - Edwin Black

Acclaimed author and investigative journalist Edwin Black will speak on September 22 at lecture events in Terre Haute, Indiana, based on his block-buster book War Against the Weak. He will offer the results of his meticulous research on the corporate-funded pseudo-science known as eugenics that had its roots in America but saw its eventual full flowering in Nazi Germany’s inhuman medical experiments and death camps. The event is free and open to the public.

As the featured speaker at the Eugenics Exhibit Premiere at the CANDLES museum in Terre Haute, Black’s talk “Eugenics--from Indiana to Auschwitz” will be followed by a book signing. A historic question and answer session with Nazi medical experiments survivor Eva Kor will follow. Kor is a frequent speaker on inhuman Nazi medical experimentation and is herself a survivor of the infamous experiments conducted on twin children by deathcamp doctor Josef Mengele. An advocate of justice and forgiveness, Kor is the founder of the CANDLES museum. 

Black is the author of the award-winning bestseller War Against the Weak--Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create a Master Race, recounts corporate funded and government-sponsored sterilization of so-called inferior races and classes of people. Black has presented before North Carolina state legislators as the state's legislature deliberates over compensation for victims of state-sponsored sterilization. Black said that “Compensation to the victims of America’s eugenic madness would be just a downpayment on justice. The sterilization of American children and adults considered ‘unfit’ by pseudo-science funded by The Carnegie Institution and others found its echo in macabre Nazi clinical procedures and death camps.” In North Carolina, Black was an invited scholar-in-residence where he gave lectures and provided evidence of corporate and government complicity in extermination schemes in the U.S. Read more ..


Book Essay

The Propagation of the Myth of Easter Island's Eco-cide

September 15th 2011

Book Covers - God Species

Few historical tales of ecological collapse have achieved the cultural resonance of that of Easter Island. In the conventional account, best popularised by Jared Diamond in his 2005 book Collapse, the islanders brought doom upon themselves by over-exploiting their limited environment, thereby providing a compelling analogy for modern times. Yet recent archaeological work suggests that the eco-collapse hypothesis is almost certainly wrong – and that the truth is far more shocking.

Diamond’s thesis is that the island’s original lush tree-cover was destroyed by the Polynesian colonists, whose cult of making massive statues (for which the island is now famous) required prodigious amounts of wood to transport these huge rock idols. He suggests that as the ecological crisis brought on by deforestation worsened, the islanders tried to appease their apparently angry gods by making and transporting yet more statues, creating a vicious circle of human stupidity.

Lest we fail to spot the parallel, he writes: “I have often asked myself, “What did the Easter Islander who cut down the last palm tree say while he was doing it?” Like modern loggers, did he shout “Jobs, not trees!”? Or: “Technology will solve our problems, never fear, we’ll find a substitute for wood”? Read more ..


American Culture

Goodbye, Borders Books, and Thanks a Million

September 14th 2011

Book Topics - Borders Books

It's tough for any free-lance writer to make a living—but it was a lot easier with a friendly bookstore on your side, helping you from start to finish.

It wasn't that long ago that if you wanted to buy a book, there was no Kindle or Nook or amazon.com—or internet, for that matter. There weren't even big book chains. You had to go to one of those narrow stores in mini-malls that sold an equally narrow selection of paperback best-sellers and thrillers and romance novels.

But then Tom and Louis Borders—U-Michigan graduate students—changed all that. (Beware the grad student who puts aside his thesis to go into business.) After a few years, they decided to go big, opening a two-story shop on State Street, where they created an inventory system that ensured the books people were actually buying would get replaced within days—or hours. Read more ..


Book Reviews

County: Life, Death and Public Hospitals done the Chicago Way

September 13th 2011

Book Covers - County

County: Life, Death and Politics at Chicago’s Public Hospital. David A. Ansell, MD. Academy Chicago Publishers. 2011. 256 pages.

Not long ago I was hospitalized for ten days. Insurance paid for most of my expenses. The doctors, nurses and facilities were outstanding as was my post-hospitalization follow-ups by visiting RNs.

Now compare my experience with Dr. David Ansell’s County, about the seventeen years he worked at Chicago’s Cook County Hospital, a safety net hospital dubbed “County” by the poor and largely uninsured people of color it served. It had once been praised for establishing the nation’s first blood bank and trauma unit. By 1995, however, when Ansell left, it had become a dumping ground for the poorest of the poor, as he describes it in his gripping, angry and ultimately very sad chronicle.

In 1978 Ansell and a small group of five Syracuse University medical school graduates, all deeply influenced by the activism and accomplishments of the civil rights and anti-war movements, chose to launch their internships at Cook County Hospital. “We came to County Hospital eyes wide open because of its troubles, not in spite of them,” writes Ansell. “We came to County because we believed that health care was a right, not a privilege.” But it was, the five interns quickly learned, no better than “third-world patient care.” In his introduction, the respected Dr. Quentin Young, County’s Chairman of Internal Medicine, says the hospital was “monstrous.”

Third World? Monstrous? Ansell describes what he found during his years at County: corruption, substandard management, political patronage, doctors learning on the job, rats, roaches and always, jammed waiting rooms (“The County Hospital lobby could have been mistaken for a Calcutta bus station, not a place of healing.”) He describes one night in the ER when “the knife and gunshot wounds had priority. They screamed in pain. Blood and chaos. The drunks and addicts on gurneys as well.” It was Dante’s Inferno, American style. Read more ..


Author Tours

Acclaimed Author Edwin Black to Lecture in Washington D.C. on the Petropolitics of the Mideast

September 12th 2011

Contributors / Staff - Edwin Black

Acclaimed author and investigative journalist Edwin Black will speak at a September 15 event in Washington D.C. on the role of petroleum in U.S. foreign policy towards the Mideast and the roots of decades-long struggle over power and energy supplies. Black’s latest book is British Petroleum and the Redline Agreement--The West's Secret Pact to Get Mideast Oil, which will provide a basis for his presentation. Black is said to be the man who coined the term"petropolitics." Sponsored by the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs, Black’s at the Carleton Ballroom of the St. Regis Hotel in Washington D.C.

British Petroleum and the Redline Agreement has brought him accolades from analysts who watch the Mideast and the current devolution of decades-old dictatorships in Egypt, Libya and Tunisia, and the possible rise of Islamist regimes.

In Redline, Black again brings to the table his considerable gifts for research and the excavation of a complex nexus of relationships that sustains America’s and the world’s petroleum addiction. British Petroleum has long been nurtured by the wars in what is now Iraq. The 2010 oil platform disaster in the Gulf of Mexico brought to light for Americans its tangled web of deceit. The book now adds the back story of shady diplomacy, petropoliticized wars, and realpolitik that made British Petroleum and created the modern Middle East.

At JINSA, Black will also draw upon his collection of books relating to petroleum. These include Internal Combustion, The Plan, and Banking on Baghdad. His work provides historical context to the troubles of the so-called Arab Spring that have led to the Fall for Libya’s Muammar Gadhafi and Egypt’s Hosni Mubarak. Read more ..


Film Review

Hollywood Comes to India, Bollywood Looks Abroad

September 12th 2011

Film - Frieda Pinto
Frieda Pinto in Slumdog Millionaire

After 25 years since its last visit, the James Bond movie franchise is returning to India. After authorities granted on-location shooting permits in New Delhi, Mumbai and Goa, India media reported the film may include a sequence in crowded markets and on a train. Even the star of the still-unnamed 23rd film in the series about a dapper British super spy, Daniel Craig, is expected to sign on as the official Ambassador of Indian Railways and appear in a TV commercial.

But the new Bond film isn't the only movie planning to use India as a location.

Indian authorities gave permission to more than 20 foreign filmmakers to shoot in India last year. Some of the high-profile projects include Michael Winterbottom’s Trishna, and Ang Lee’s Life of Pi, an adaptation of a novel. Eat, Pray and Love, starring Julia Roberts, was also partly filmed in India. Read more ..


Book Reviews

Privilege: The Making of the Harvard Indifference

September 11th 2011

Book Topics - Privilege

Privilege: The Making of an Adolescent Elite at St. Paul’s School. Shamus Rahman Khan. Princeton University Press. 2011. 248 pages.

Nearly 30 years ago, when Sara Lawrence Lightfoot wrote The Good High School (1984), she subtitled her book “Portraits of Character and Culture.” One of the six schools she portrayed was St. Paul’s, the exclusive boarding school—one of the so-called “St. Grottlesex” group—located in Concord, New Hampshire. In a chapter called “Certainty, Privilege, and the Imprint of History,” she limned students, faculty, and administration, and concluded that the school was characterized by an “Eriksonian emphasis” on “trust, industry, and economy.”

Shamus Rahman Khan, a member of St. Paul’s Class of 1994, remembers the school of his student days, just a few years after Lightfoot’s visit, much less positively. The son of a well-to-do Pakistani father and Irish mother, he was “not particularly happy” there—primarily, he says, because of his “increasing awareness of inequality.” Now a sociologist at Columbia University, he recently returned to St. Paul’s for a year of teaching and ethnographic research, living the life of a typical boarding school “triple threat”: teaching classes, coaching (squash and tennis), and advising 24/7. He got to know students well. And he was startled to find “a very different place” from the one he had left little more than a decade before. “My ethnographic examination of St. Paul’s School surprised me,” he says. “Instead of the arrogance of entitlement, I discovered at St. Paul’s an ease of privilege.”

“Ease”—a personal style, a way of behaving, a persona that one adopts and that becomes part of oneself—allows students to be at home in the multicultural world they are inheriting (sometimes, of course, in more ways than one). Building on the theories of Pierre Bourdieu, Khan shows how students at St. Paul’s learn literally to embody “ease.” Where the old elite valued exclusion, the new one judges its potential members on how comfortable they are with inclusiveness and how good they are at acting as if the hierarchy they must navigate isn’t there. Theoretically, at least, St. Paul’s is a meritocratic democracy: success comes to anyone who can be comfortable in its diverse, intense, relationship-driven world. “What St. Paul’s is teaching,” he summarizes, “is a style of learning that quickly becomes a style of living—with an emphasis on ways of relating and making connections rather than with a deep engagement with ideas and texts.” Read more ..


Nigeria on Edge

Nigeria’s Film Industry Reflects the Messy Process of Nation Building

September 9th 2011

Nigeria - Nollywood Film Crew

This is our first visit to Nigeria and we’re filming our new fall TV season. The best briefing material or conversation with individuals can in no way prepare you for the massive number of people and the incredible intellectual and human capital that exist in this land of plenty. Given that our media business syndicates programming around the globe we are most impressed with the Nigerian film and entertainment industry.

The opening scenes in the Hollywood epic “There Will Be Blood” feature a grainy video shot in soundless shadow. Without a doubt it is one of the most beautiful big screen scenes in modern memory. But in fact the scene itself, and the ultimately the movie as whole, takes the viewer back to a rougher period in early American history—before the country was connected by railroad, telegraph, and highway. Similarly, Nigeria’s nascent movies industry operates in a land without robust national infrastructure. The fact that it the industry exists at all, without cinemas, studios, cable television, or even a national electric grid speaks to its amazing resiliency. Read more ..


The Edge of Genocide

North Carolina's Reparations for Eugenic Genocide is a Mere Down Payment on Justice

September 7th 2011

Book Covers - War Against the Weak

Twenty-seven American states joined a decades-long pseudo-scientific crusade to create a white, blond, blue-eyed, biologically superior "master race". Their misguided utopian quest was called eugenics. But only one state, North Carolina, is now readying a massive plan of financial reparations to its surviving victims. Just how much North Carolina should pay is now the subject of a historically wrenching debate.

Eugenics was a fraudulent social theory that a better society could be created by eliminating "undesirable" human blood lines and promoting the desirable types. Race science sprang to life in the socioeconomically convulsive first decade of the 20th century, during which Asians, Eastern Europeans, Mexicans, Native Americans, blacks and other ethnic groups and racial mixtures flowed into US cities, creating overcrowding and class conflict.

The intellectual, academic, scientific and financial elite believed better men and women could be cultivated using the same techniques a farmer would employ to create a better herd of cattle or field of wheat – eliminate the bad stock and proliferate the good. They planned to eliminate all those who did not resemble themselves, 10% at a time – that is, as many as 14 million people, at a slice. Their eventual goal was to eliminate as much as 90% of the population from the reproductive future of the United States.

The preferred method was gas chambers and other forms of euthanasia. The first public euthanasia laws were introduced into the Ohio legislature in 1908. That measure was unsuccessful, as were other death panel bills. The next best thing was forced surgical sterilisation under specific state authority that was validated as the law of the land in the US supreme court by one of America's most stellar jurists, Oliver Wendell Holmes. In 1927, Holmes ruled on an obviously collusive lawsuit seeking to justify the forced sterilisation of three generations of Carrie Buck's family. Holmes infamously noted:

"It is better for all the world if, instead of waiting to execute degenerate offspring for crime, or to let them starve for their imbecility, society can prevent those who are manifestly unfit from continuing their kind … Three generations of imbeciles are enough." Read more ..


The Edge of Film

The Place for Super 8 Film in the History of Filmmaking

September 5th 2011

Film - Super 8 film

J.J. Abrams' science-fiction movie "Super 8" is a big, boisterous homage to the now somewhat distant technological and cultural phenomenon of 8mm film. Before there was cellphone video, there were camcorders, and before camcorders there were readily affordable 8mm cameras that exposed 8mm and Super 8 film stock.

The 8mm gauge—"regular 8"—went on the market in 1932 and was one of Eastman Kodak's most ingenious inventions. During the Depression, when the country's citizens were patronizing movie houses as never before, the inexpensive 8mm system arrived to give amateurs their own film-making tool.

The 8mm system was cheap and easy to use thanks to a clever innovation. An 8mm film spool actually held a 25-foot length of 16mm film (at first only black-and-white, but later you could obtain color film). When the spool was inserted in the camera, one half of the 16mm film was exposed during shooting, after which the spool would be flipped for exposing the other side. Developing processors would split the film down the middle, making a 50-foot, 8mm creation with a 3-minute 20-second running time. Read more ..


Film Reviews

One Day: A Movie that Shows a Director's Promise

August 28th 2011

Film - One Day

One Day. Director: Lone Scherfig; Starring: Anne Hathaway, Jim Sturgess, Sébastien Dupuis. Length: 90 mins.

How hard could it be for a former scholar of Winchester College to remember the legend associated with the patron saint of Winchester cathedral?

St Swithun’s day if thou dost rain,
For forty days it will remain;
St Swithun’s day if thou be fair,
For forty days ’twill rain nae mare
[sic].

Dexter (Jim Sturgess), the scholar aforementioned, is the principal male character in One Day and he has a vague recollection that there is such a legend. Also that it is somehow associated with the weather. More than that, however, he cannot say when he meets Emma (Anne Hathaway) on St. Swithun’s day (July 15th), 1988, after a night of revelry ensuing upon their graduation from Edinburgh University.

I’m only guessing here, mind you, but I think that David Nicholls, adapting his own best-selling novel for the screen, and director Lone Scherfig (An Education, Italian for Beginners) were thinking that Dexter would be more charming for forgetting (he is also drunk) than he would be for remembering. Bad call. At any rate, I don’t find him so, nor do I find him otherwise very prepossessing. In fact, he is little better than a lout, and by the time I saw him (inevitably) educated out of his loutishness, it was too late for me, at any rate, to feel much sympathy for him. Read more ..


Film Review

Our Idiot Brother: Ambivalence about Hippy Siblings

August 27th 2011

Film - Our Idiot Brother

Our Idiot Brother: Director: Jesse Peretez. Starring: Evgenia Peretz, Paul Rudd, Zooey Deschanel, Elizabeth Banks, Emily Mortimer. Length: 90 mins.

Having made his big-screen debut as a California high school version of Jane Austen’s Mr. Knightley in Clueless (1995), Paul Rudd is beginning to look more and more like Hollywood’s ideal leading man of the new century. Mild-mannered, unthreatening and vaguely feminine in his sensitivity and ability to express feeling, he manages to make the post-"Seinfeld" man-boy ideal look almost plausible in movies like I Love You, Man (2009) and How Do You Know(2010).

I wonder, however, if his star turn as the aging hippie naif Ned in Our Idiot Brother isn’t rather a reductio ad absurdum of what is becoming the Paul Rudd type? The movie, directed by Jesse Peretz and co-written by his sister, Evgenia (the children of Martin Peretz of The New Republic) with her husband, David Schisgall, starts with the highish concept of Ned as such an innocent that, in the vignette we are shown above the opening credits, he sells some marijuana to a uniformed police officer (Bob Stephenson). The movie begins, then, with his release from the county lockup to find that his pre-jail girlfriend, Janet (Kathryn Hahn), has not only dumped him for Billy (T.J. Miller), who might be his twin, mentally at least, but also claimed as her own his beloved dog, Willy Nelson.

Janet, though ostensibly a hippie pacifist herself, clearly has a thing for compliant and submissive males like Ned, who has been educated to her requirements in the hard school of his own female-dominated family. Now jobless and homeless, he is forced to crash, first, with his alcoholic mother (Shirley Knight) and then with one or another of his three beautiful and accomplished sisters, Liz (Emily Mortimer), Miranda (Elizabeth Banks) and Natalie (Zooey Deschanel), all of whom regard this family black sheep as something of a project to try to set onto some path to responsible adulthood. Perhaps you will not be shocked to learn that, from the Hollywood point of view anyway, the sisters have more to learn from Ned than Ned has to learn from the sisters. Gosh! Bet you didn’t see that one coming. Read more ..


War Against the Weak

Author Black Lectures at Virginia Tech on Eugenic Genocide

August 26th 2011

Book Covers - War Against the Weak

Award-winning author and investigative journalist Edwin Black will deliver a multimedia presentation entitled, "Eugenics-- From Virginia to Auschwitz" on August 28 at the campus of Virginia Tech University in Blacksburg VA. Virginians from across the state will be driving to the campus to hear Black speak. Among the groups will be groups of Native Americans victimized by state eugenics.

Black's many books have included IBM and the Holocaust, The Farhud, and War Against the Weak. The latter of these recounts the growth of the pseudo-science known as eugenics that was funded by corporate America and which sought to eliminate so-called ‘unfit’ people such as African-Americans, Native Americans, and the poor, through sterilization abetted by local and state governments. Black follows the connections between American eugenicists and their funders and supporters, such as Henry Ford and the Carnegie Institution, to Adolf Hitler and the logical terminus of their inhuman philosophy in the gas chambers of Auschwitz.

Author Black uses exhaustive research and dynamic literary style to bring alive the testimony of the victims of pseudo-science and intolerance in our own country and abroad. He will stop at Virginia Tech while travelling as a scholar-in-residence invited to North Carolina where, after speaking at several major universities, he will address the state legislature, which is currently considering legislation offering compensation to victims of forced sterilization. Click here to see lecture schedule.

In the early twentieth century and into the 1930s, over 60,000 people in the U.S. were forcibly sterilized in state institutions. The sterilizations were justifed because of the alleged criminality (generally poverty) of the victims, their race, intelligence, or perceived promiscuity, among other reasons. Virginia was the epicenter of the rash of sterilizations, having been the first place were eugenic genocide took place under official auspices. In next door North Carolina, over 7,600 people sterilizations took place that were assigned by a state eugenics board. Some victims were as young as 10 years old. This was done, said Black, to ostensibly improve the human race by eliminating undesirable humans. Read more ..


Film Reviews

Page One: NYT and its Self-Importance

August 25th 2011

Film - Page One movie

Page One: Inside the New York Times. Director: Andrew Rossi. Length: 88 minutes.

Watching Page One: Inside The New York Times by Andrew Rossi reminded me a bit of reading the Times itself: it's all a jumble of odd and unrelated stories held together and, indeed, utterly overshadowed by one thing and one thing only, namely, the paper's massive and unreflective self-importance. That's why when it brings before the camera one Michael Hirschorn, a man who wrote a piece for the Atlantic a couple of years ago suggesting that the Times might go out of business soon, it is only so that he and his article can be held up to ridicule from the Times-men who are treated so sympathetically by Mr. Rossi.

Can Mr. Hirschorn, they wonder, really be so preternaturally stupid as to imagine that the Times could ever go out of business? It's the Times, for God's sake!

A documentary whose main purpose is puffery is not likely to have much success with anything else it tries to do, and Mr. Rossi's veneration of his heroes at The New York Times leaves little room for anything else anyway. The heroes are, especially, Bill Keller, the paper's Executive Editor at the time the movie was made who has since stepped down in favor of Jill Abramson, Bruce Headlam, the media editor, and, above all, David Carr, media columnist. There's also a blogger named Brian Stelter whom Mr. Carr jokingly claims, is "a robot assembled in the basement of the New York Times to come and destroy it" but who is clearly a Times-man through and through. Read more ..


The Edge of Genocide

Edwin Black in North Carolina Scholar-in-Residence lectures on Racist Eugenics and US Complicity in Nazism

August 24th 2011

Contributors / Staff - Edwin Black

Renowned investigative journalist and author Edwin Black, as part of his intercontinental lecture tour, will update audiences in North Carolina on his latest books and research as a scholar-in-residence. As a featured speaker, Black will mainly discuss his research on eugenics, the corporate-funded pseudo-science Made in the USA that sought to identify and eliminate so-called inferior classes of people. He will also lecture on direct pivotal corporate collusion with the Nazis. Black is expected to speak specifically on the issues raised by his books War Against the Weak, Nazi Nexus, and The Farhud: The Arab-Nazi Alliance in the Holocaust, and the perennial issues they raise for America today.

Edwin Black’s many books have exposed readers all over the world to his exacting research on subjects that have raised vigorous debate and controversy, including the involvement of U.S. corporations with the Nazi war machine and the Holocaust, the racist American eugenics and sterilization movement in the 20th century, and the far-reaching corruption and geopolitics that stem from America’s dependence on petroleum.

A key reason for Black's visit is to North Carolina is to address the question of state compensation for eugenic sterilization. The measure is now before the legislature. "North Carolina's war against its own citizens was nothing short of genocide," said Black. The state should compensate. But the guilt must be shared with the philanthropic organizations and academic groups that pushed the state to do the unthinkable and tried to rationalize it as sound science—when it was all a fraud."

Special sponsors and co-chair for the Edwin Black in North Carolina Scholar-in-Residence include Rep. Larry M. Womble (Winston-Salem 71st District), Rep. Earline W. Parmon (72st District), Winston-Salem Mayor Allen Joines, Gary M. Green, and Keith Grandberry. See the tour here. Read more ..


Film Reviews

Tabloid: Sex and Celebrity All Tied-Up

August 20th 2011

Film - Tabloid

Tabloid. Director: Errol Morris. Starring: Kent Gavin, Joyce McKinney. Length: 87 minutes.

Those who are unschooled in the ways of our cultural élites may find it somewhat strange that Errol Morris (The Thin Blue Line, Mr. Death, The Fog of War) has titled his new documentary, Tabloid. I hope you will not think it presumptuous of me if I undertake to explain what I take to be his thinking in doing so.

The movie tells the story of one Joyce McKinney, a former beauty queen from North Carolina who was also blessed with spirit and determination but, alas, not very good judgment. She briefly became a tabloid sensation in Britain back in the 1970s - I was living there at the time and remember it well - on account of having (allegedly) kidnaped her Mormon lover, Kirk Anderson, who had left her back in the US. when he went to do his missionary service in the UK. According to the tabloids once she had abducted Kirk with the help of one or more hired goons, she whisked him off to an isolated cottage in Devon where she kept him as a "sex slave" who was "spread-eagled" and "chained" to the bed until he somehow managed to escape and alert the authorities.

It was, as one of Mr. Morris's interviewees put it, "the perfect tabloid story," and this is borne out by the probability that "sex slave" and "spread-eagled" and "chained" were all most likely journalistic inventions. Likewise the pleasingly alliterative "Manacled Mormon," as Mr. Anderson was known to the British papers during his brief period of notoriety. Miss McKinney, not surprisingly, says to Mr. Morris's camera that the whole thing was pretty much a tabloid invention and that it is not possible for a woman to rape a man. Employing a now-venerable witticism, she says that it would be like putting a marshmallow in a parking meter. According to Mr. Morris's lengthy interviews with her and others, there seems to be some doubt as to whether there was even any penetrative coitus between them. Read more ..


Edge on Film

Early Hitchcock Film Rediscovered in New Zealand

August 16th 2011

Film - Hitchcock White Shadow

Researchers in New Zealand made an amazing find recently when they discovered the 1924 British silent film The White Shadow.

The film is significant because it was one of the first movies made by famed director Alfred Hitchcock, who was its assistant director, writer, editor and production designer.

The White Shadow was made in Britain, where Hitchcock was born and began his career, but was distributed by an American company.

“We were sort of the end of the line, I think, from the U.S. They obviously traveled to Australia and across to New Zealand, and then when it got to the last screenings in New Zealand here, these productions were just destroyed,” said Brian Scadden, the head of the laboratory at Park Road Post Production in Wellington, where the film will be preserved. Read more ..


Book Reviews

Carthage Must Be Destroyed: And an End to Roman Exceptionalism

August 16th 2011

Book Covers - Carthage must be destroyed

Carthage Must Be Destroyed: The Rise and Fall of an Ancient Civilization. Richard Miles. Viking. 2011. 544 pages.

England and France. Greece and Persia. Hapsburgs and Ottomans. Imperial rivalry is as old as history itself, but some rivalries can truly be said to have changed the world. The great contest between the Mediterranean city-states of Rome and Carthage falls into that category. At the end of three Punic Wars stretching over a century (264-146 BC), Carthage was literally wiped off the face of the earth. But in this fascinating new history, University of Sydney historian Richard Miles reconstructs a civilization whose memory continues to stir imaginations -- particularly among those who suspect that their own is not immortal.

History, as we all know, is written by the victors (or the ancient Greeks). As Miles explains, most of what we know about Carthage is second-hand, and most of that is anti-Carthaginian. But he is deft in deconstructing such sources. As he also makes clear, he doesn't always have to: the truth is that the Romans needed the Carthaginians, at no time more than after they had been vanquished. There could be no myth of Roman power without a legendary adversary on which to justify it. If you're careful, patient, and epistemologically humble, the truth has a way of surfacing, like pottery fragments from an archeological site.

For the lay reader, one of the more surprising aspects of Carthaginian civilization is its syncretic character, deeply rooted in the Levant. The North African city was founded by Phoenician traders who had deeply imbibed Greek as well as Persian culture. A maritime people whose trade stretched from modern day Lebanon to Spain, its peninsular position right smack in the middle was just about ideal for dominating the Mediterranean oval. For centuries, the island of Sicily was a key staging base for such operations. Read more ..


Book Reviews

American Uprising: Untold Story of Slavery that Misses the Mark

August 15th 2011

Book Covers - American uprising

American Uprising, The Untold Story of America’s Largest Slave Revolt. Daniel Rasmussen. HarperCollins. 2011. 288 pages.

We are now in the middle of the sesquicentennial (150th) anniversary commemoration of the American Civil War, the tenth anniversary of 9/11, and the 2012 Tea Party/presidential election campaign, and everything about the American past is politicized. In an earlier article posted on the History News Network, I discussed how presidential candidate Michele Bachmann (R-Minnesota) was creating her own version of the history of the nation’s founders and of nineteenth century abolitionists to support her belief in the specialness of the United States as a place where the inherent faith of the founders in liberty allowed the nation to eliminate the stain of slavery. In the article, I pointed out that in a sense Bachmann was half right. While Washington and Jefferson supported the enslavement of Africans in the United States, many of the nation’s founders from New York State were opponents of slavery and did work to bring it to an end.

Bachmann’s views about slavery are similar top those championed by Lewis E. Lehrman, a conservative Republican, co-founder of the Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, and board member at the New York Historical Society. According to his website, Lehrman has also been a trustee of the American Enterprise Institute, the Manhattan Institute, and the Heritage Foundation. In a New York Times interview, Lehrman argued that the institution of slavery was “supported throughout the world, but Americans took the initiative in destroying it.” Lehrman deplored the view expressed by some that “American history consists of one failure after another to deal with the issue of slavery.” According to Lehrman, “one of the triumphs of America was to have dealt directly with that issue in the agonies of a civil war.” Read more ..


Film Review

Captain America: The First Avenger Takes out Hollywood's Trash

August 15th 2011

Film - Captain America First Avenger

Captain America: The First Avenger. Directed by Joe Johnston. Starring Chris Evans, Tommy Lee Jones, Hugo Weaving, Hayley Atwell, Stanley Tucci. Length: 124 minutes.

Infamous New Yorker film critic Pauline Kael wrote: “Movies are so rarely great art that if we cannot appreciate great trash we have very little reason to be interested in them.” The ability to appreciate "great trash" is an occupational hazard for anyone interested in film these days. Captain America: The First Avenger is proof, if any were needed, that Hollywood is content to carry on taking out the trash.

Chris Evans camps it up appropriately and delightfully to play Steve Rogers, a skinny calorie dodger with ambitions above and beyond his physical stature. Evan's and his co-stars, Tommy Lee Jones and Hugo Weaving aren't shy about hamming it up for a superhero movie which feels like a parody of the genre. Could director Joe Johnston finally have cracked the unsolvable conundrum of the lacklustre, underwhelming comic book adaptation with a bit of light-hearted entertainment?

A look at the top ten grossing films of the last ten years will you that what modern audiences want, for the most part, is spectacle and not art. What Captain America has going for it is that it does have pretensions beyond being just that, a spectacle. It has plenty of fun and engaging characters, colourful action sequences and some impressive if imperfect visual effects. The story will hold your attention enough so that when 1940s “Cap” awakes from a 70-year deep freeze nap in the Arctic circle and is confronted with contemporary New York City at the end of the film, you'll actually care what happens next. Read more ..


Book Review

J-Street, Jeremy Ben-Ami and his Misleading Book about Israel

August 11th 2011

Contributors / Staff - Isi Leibler headshot

Jeremy Ben-Ami, founder and president of J Street, has written a highly misleading book titled "A New Voice for Israel" portraying himself as a passionate supporter of Israel and a dedicated Zionist and extolling the virtues of his purportedly "pro Israel pro-peace" organization

The opening section i.s sourced from the autobiography of his father Yitzhak Ben-Ami, whose antecedents settled in Palestine.

Yitzchak became a devoted follower of Zev Jabotinsky and was sent to the United States on behalf of the underground Irgun Zvai Leumi, initially to recruit volunteers for a Jewish army and then to support the campaign by the Peter Bergson [Hillel Kook] group to alert Americans to the plight of the European Jewry.

Together with Ben Hecht, Edward G Robinson and others, he confronted Rabbi Stephen Wise and the Jewish establishment who, under the spell of President Franklin Roosevelt, remained silent in face of the Administration's unwillingness to provide haven for European Jews being murdered by the Nazis.

Jeremy Ben-Ami, founder and president of J Street, has written a highly misleading book titled "A New Voice for Israel" portraying himself as a passionate supporter of Israel and a dedicated Zionist and extolling the virtues of his purportedly "pro Israel pro-peace" organization

The opening section is sourced from the autobiography of his father Yitzhak Ben-Ami, whose antecedents settled in Palestine. Read more ..


Book Reviews

Starring New York: the Glamming of Grime in the Movies of the '70s

August 4th 2011

Book Covers - Starring New York

Starring New York: Filming the Grime and Glamour of the Long 1970s. Stanley Corkin. Oxford University Press. 2011. 272 pages.

One afternoon in the late seventies I stumbled on a film crew shooting on location in Washington Square Park in lower Manhattan. Extras had been set up doing the sorts of things someone imagined went on in the park on a daily basis – juggling, playing music, pushing infants in strollers. I thought nothing of it until a year later when the very same scene appeared before me on a silver screen -- a sanitized New York that offered the two main characters entertainment and diversion as they strolled about the park instead of the drug dealers and panhandlers that had been harassing me there since I was a teenager. The scenarist for that film, An Unmarried Woman (Paul Mazursky, 1978), permitted none of the hazards or traumas of urban life in the 1970s to sully the idealization of New York as a place where romance was possible.

Such sterilized scenes, according to Stanley Corkin, typified a certain genre of Hollywood film set in New York during the 1970s, films that reflected and reflected upon that city’s economic, demographic and cultural transformation from a declining industrial metropolis to what Saskia Sassen and others have called a “global city.” Corkin’s ambitious study uses the vast literature of recent urban sociology and geography (by Sassen, David Harvey, Neil Smith and others) to interpret nearly two dozen films produced between 1969 and 1981 by a new generation of Hollywood film makers, who broke free of the restrictive studio-based production system to begin a renaissance in independent American film. Read more ..


Book Event

The Launch of Reawakening by Armstrong Williams

August 1st 2011

Book Covers - reawakening virtues - williams

The evening of July 23, dozens of Washington’s journalism elites got out of the triple-digit heat for a few hours and gathered in Northwest D.C. to celebrate the release of Armstrong Williams’s newest offering, Reawakening Virtues. The gathering was hosted by the families of Morton Bender, the highly successful Washington real estate developer, and Dr. Benjamin Carson, recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom and legendary brain surgeon at Johns Hopkins in Baltimore.

Mr. Williams, author also of Letters to a Young Victim and Beyond Blame, signed books and gave a brief lecture to those gathered (including some C-SPAN cameras) about his thesis: that the only permanent solutions to our country’s problems is a refocusing on virtue, on personal excellence; and that our collective well-being depends upon our individual well-being. He exhorted the crowd to try to be more rather than have more.

He went on to explain how the darkest moment of his career—the No Child Left Behind Scandal—had forced him to reexamine his life and ultimately made him a better man. And, he said, being a better man does not mean sacrificing success: “I have been blessed tenfold,” he said, since what he referred to as his involuntary Sabbath took him out of the spotlight. After this speech, Williams worked the crowd with the wit and charm that, for decades, have come to characterize his radio show and television appearances.

Besides Williams, there were other leaders of the media elite, including Fox News’s Juan Williams, the Chicago Tribune’s Clarence Page, and award-winner bestselling author Edwin Black. The turnout was a testament to the enduring literary power of Washington, as well as to the resurgence of Armstrong Williams as an author and media figure. As Williams himself put it, “there’s a lot of good people here.” Read more ..


Book Reviews

Warfare State Connects World War II and the Rise of Big Brother Government

August 1st 2011

Book Covers - Warfare

Warfare State: World War II and the Age of Big Government. James T. Sparrow. Oxford, 2011. 344 pages.

In the lifetime of most contemporary Americans -- in the lifetimes of most Americans, period -- the prevailing opinion has been that when it comes to federal government intervention in the lives of ordinary citizens, less is more. Those of us with a even a passing familiarity with U.S. history are aware that this has not always been so, and think of the middle third of the twentieth century in particular as a time when Big Government did not simply prevail, but was the prevailing common sense. And that this common sense took root during Franklin Delano's Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s.

In this important new book, however, University of Chicago professor James T. Sparrow corrects that perception in a significant way. It was not FDR's New Deal that really transformed Americans' relationship with their government, he says. It was FDR's Second World War. In the words of the title, what we think of as the welfare state was really a warfare state. Sparrow is not the first person to make such a case; scholars like Michael S. Sherry (In the Shadow of War, 1995) and Robert Westbrook, Why We Fought, 2004), have explored similar terrain. But Sparrow traverses it with a touch that is at once deft, informed, and imaginative. Rarely is so comprehensive an argument delivered in so concise a manner (about 260 pages). Read more ..


Book Reviews

Independence Chronicles The Struggle to Set America Free, But not from Slavery

August 1st 2011

Book Covers - Independence

Independence: The Struggle to Set America Free. John Ferling. Bloomsbury. 2011. 448 pages.

It’s hard not to feel bad for the Founding Fathers these days. After all, it is the Civil War’s moment. This year marks the 150th anniversary of the beginning of that ghastly war, and for the next five years it will get the lion’s share of attention. The challenge facing any historian writing a popular history of the Founders today, then, is to show that what they fought for—freedom, and independence—were not simple canards; that when the Founders wrote in the Declaration of Independence “all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights,” they actually meant it.

That is the challenge facing John Ferling, a respected historian of the American Revolution, in his new book, Independence: The Struggle to Set America Free. To tell his story, he seizes on an underappreciated but profoundly significant moment in the eight-year War of Independence—the decision to not merely compel the British to reverse a series of onerous acts, but to break away from the empire entirely, and declare themselves a free and independent nation.

There was no precedent in history for such a move, and the Founders knew they were taking a great risk. By highlighting many of their early objections to independence Ferling captures just how parlous it was. The colonies had no real central government, and the body that would vote for independence, the Continental Congress, was itself a hastily formed government with no formal powers. The colonies had no standing army, and in case war broke out, they would have no way to fund it. Even if they found a way—but lost a war—the British probably would have been even more ruthless in their rule. Read more ..


Book Reviews

The Cambridge Companion to America's Great Past Time

August 1st 2011

Book Covers - Cambridge Companion Baseball

The Cambridge Companion to Baseball. Leonard Cassuto and Stephen Partridge, eds., Cambridge University Press. 2011. 280 pages.

Both the casual fan and baseball scholar should find The Cambridge Companion to Baseball a delightful read and companion for their enjoyment of a popular sport whose claim to be the national pastime is, nevertheless, somewhat dubious for this modern age. Editors Leonard Cassuto and Stephen Partridge have compiled fifteen essays, along with interchapters focusing upon important baseball personalities, prepared primarily by academics. The essays are well written and cover a wide range of issues from literature, film, and material culture to history, economics, race relations, and international development of the game which is also a business. The editors assert, “The story of baseball is, in an important way, the story of the interaction between the myth of the national pastime and the reality of the baseball business. The tension between these two is what drives this book”.

The essays need not be read in any particular order, and, indeed, part of the fun with a companion volume is selecting what catches one’s eye on a particular day or mood. This review, however, will discuss the pieces in their order of appearance within the book. The Cambridge Companion to Baseball provides readers with suggestions for further reading and a chronology of the sport’s evolution in the United States from the 1945 formation of the Knickerbocker Base Ball Club in New York to the steroids crisis of 2009-2010. The Companion presents a view of the unique role which baseball has played in America’s past while taking some note of the challenges facing the sport in the twenty-first century. Read more ..


Book Reviews

'Wasting Minds' and Why Johnny Can't Read or Cypher

July 28th 2011

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Wasting Minds: Why Our Education System Is Failing and What We Can Do About It. Ronald A. Wolk. ASCD. 2011. 256 pages.

Ronald Wolk, who grew up in Pittsburgh and now lives in Rhode Island, earned a distinguished reputation as an education journalist. As founder and first editor of Education Week, he established a high standard for thorough, professional coverage of the national school reform debate that was kicked into high gear by the “Nation at Risk” report (1983) and then into overdrive with No Child Left Behind (2002). He now chairs Big Picture Learning, the parent organization of “The Met” school in Providence, and, not surprisingly, shares the ideas of its founder, Dennis Littky.

Surveying the current national education scene, Wolk is not optimistic: “The conventional school is obsolete,” he says, “and may very well be beyond repair.” Although he “once believed that education research would lead us to the promised land of successful schools and high student achievement,” he no longer does (even though he then goes on to cite study after study).

The book’s first half targets “false assumptions” driving much of contemporary reform. I found much that was persuasive (for instance, I agree that NCLB relies too much on testing and has counter-productively narrowed the curriculum), much to disagree with (he asserts that a core curriculum is inevitably inflexible and unappealing), and much that is muddled (on the one hand, he says it is “neither fair nor true” to charge that many teachers are lazy or incompetent; on the other, until the teaching profession attracts stronger candidates and prepares them better, “we cannot reasonably expect to get the teachers our students need and deserve”). Read more ..


Book Reviews

Does the Noise in My Head Bother You or is it just Rock 'n Roll?

July 28th 2011

Book Covers - The buzzing in my head

Does the Noise in My Head Bother You?: A Rock and Roll Memoir. Steven Tyler. HarperCollins. 2011. 400 pages.

Like a meal at McDonald's, reading autobiographies of pop culture artists always seems like a better idea before I begin than after I'm finished. I start out wondering how particular works of art I've always loved got made, but by the time I'm done reading I find myself amazed that the person I've read about was actually capable of such achievements. Their tics, stories, and laments seem to demystify them to the point that putting down the book feels as if I'm finally parting after spending too long on vacation with someone I thought I liked. If familiarity doesn't breed contempt, it does engender impatience.

I've long been a fan of the rock band Aerosmith, and I've long liked its lead singer Steven Tyler, no time more so than recent stories about the graceful way he handled a wheelchair-bound woman as one of the talent judges of American Idol. Though long regarded as Rolling Stones knockoffs -- Tyler's autobiography arrives in the wake of Keith Richards' widely acclaimed Life -- Aerosmith was responsible for some of the memorable songs of the 1970s: "Dream On," "Sweet Emotion," and, of course, "Walk this Way," which received a new lease on life when it became a hip-hop hit for Run DMC in 1985.

After struggling with drug and alcohol addictions, Tyler and his bandmates enjoyed a renaissance with a string of pop hits in beginning in the late 1980s, greatly aided by some classic MTV videos (like "Crazy," starring Liv Tyler, a daughter from one of his three marriages), and had a #1 hit in 1998 with "I Don't Want to Miss a Thing." In recent years, the term "rock star" has become a metaphorical term for someone who's celebrated in his field. But back in the day when rock was king, Tyler was a bona fide rock star, and a title he's riding into a celebrity retirement. Read more ..


Book Reviews

Bush's Wars: A Useful First Draft of History

July 28th 2011

Book Covers - Bush's Wars 2.1

Bush's Wars. Terry H. Anderson. Oxford. 2011. 312 pp.

It is often said that journalism is the first draft of history. Bush's Wars is presented as the first major comprehensive study of the U.S. wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, an effort to weigh the foreign policy legacy of President George W. Bush. This is how the blurbs and publicity for the book position it, and the way Terry H. Anderson puts it in his introduction: "to 'figure out,' in Bush's words, the history of the defining policies of his presidency -- and to do it during his lifetime."

But Bush's Wars is more a report of the journalism on those wars than a scholarly assessment in its own right. Strictly speaking, a piece of academic scholarship would draw on primary source research and advance an argument that had never been systematically articulated before. Bush's Wars distills an already voluminous literature into a 240 page narrative (whose footnotes are batched a little too aggressively to track sources all that easily). Its point of the view, that the Afghan war was bungled, and that that Iraq was both launched under false pretenses and bungled, has long been the conventional wisdom in U.S. society at large. So the book doesn't really have a lot to offer in the terms on which it presents itself.

Perhaps I should be praising it with faint damnation. Bush's Wars is actually a useful little volume that may well have a long shelf life for two reasons. The first is that there is indeed nothing like it: a piece of one-stop shopping that surveys its subject in a way that manages to be both wide-ranging and succinct. The second is that while there's little here that your garden-variety news junkie wouldn't already know, there are undoubtedly a large number of people who lived through the era without knowing much about it, and a growing number of people who were too young to really remember it. It is for those people -- i.e. college students -- with whom the book should find a home as what it really is: a course adoption text. Read more ..


Film News

Watch 'Enemies of the People' Free from PBS until August 12

July 20th 2011

Film - enemies of the people

Cambodia's communists, known to the world as the Khmer Rouge, slaughtered nearly two million people in the late 1970s. A Hollywood movie, The Killing Fields, brought the horror of the genocide to the consciousness of many, yet the systematic murders in Cambodia remain largely unexplained until now.

Thet Sambath, lead reporter for an English-language newspaper in Cambodia whose parents were murdered by the genocidal leftists, made it his goal to find out why so many were killed. Working on the film in his free time for a decade, Sambath would gain the trust of the men and women who perpetrated the massacres.

From the foot soldiers who slit throats to Pol Pot's right-hand man, the notorious Brother Number Two, Sambath and co-director Rob Lemkin record shocking testimony never before seen or heard, in Enemies of the People.

The film has been entered as evidence in the trial of octogenarian Nuon Chea, a.k.a. Brother Number Two, on charges of crimes against humanity. Brother Number Two, a leader in the Khmer Rouge politburo during the genocide answers Sambath's burning question, "Why?"

Produced in association with American Documentary | POV. A co-presentation with the Center for Asian American Media. Winner of the 2010 Sundance World Cinema Documentary Special Jury Prize. Read more ..


The Music Edge

Smithsonian Celebrates the Richness of American Rhythm and Blues

July 18th 2011

Art Topics - Jerry Williams swamp dogg
Jerry 'Swamp Dogg' Williams

Rhythm and blues. It's an American treasure and a powerful influence on popular culture. The evolution of this art form was celebrated at the Smithsonian’s recent Folklife Festival on the National Mall in Washington. Rhythm and blues was invented by African Americans more than 70 years ago. The term "R&B" was originally a marketing tool, but now refers to various musical styles including Gospel and Electric Blues, which was popularized by BB King.

Seventy years later, R&B is still going strong. At the celebration on the National Mall, thousands - young and old - came out to listen and dance. Some remembered the dance moves from the popular television show "Soul Train," which ran for 35 years. Many at the festival got into the moves and the mood. Lonnie Bunch, director of the National Museum of African American History, kicked off the R&B tribute.

"I realized this is the music that told us volumes about America, and it was also the kind of music that spoke about pain. It spoke about resiliency," says Bunch. "In some ways it becomes a universal music and then the music is so infectious. You can be anywhere in the world and hear people tapping their toes to Rhythm and Blues because it’s that special.” Read more ..


Book Review

A Timely Guide to Restoring America’s Greatness

July 17th 2011

Book Covers - reawakening virtues - williams

Reawakening Virtues: Restoring What Makes America Great. Armstrong Williams. New Chapter Publisher, 2011. 208 pages.

It was 8:21 on a Friday night, and there I was, reading yet another book on how to reclaim the morals and principles that America used to hold dear. What a way to start a weekend. Rather prudish, don’t you think?

When I found out that my husband had to work late, I decided it was as good a time as any to start reading the copy of Armstrong Williams’s new book Reawakening Virtues: Restoring What Makes America Great, which this newspaper had asked me to review. To be perfectly blunt, I was expecting to read what I’ve read (and even written about myself) a million times before.

The cry goes something like this: “Our nation is going to hell in a handbasket, and if we don’t do something fast, we’re doomed.” Don’t get me wrong—I believe the statement is true. The sad reality is that it is nothing new.

Mr. Williams’s book, however, is something new—and on that quiet summer evening, I discovered that it is quite powerful, too.

At the title of Chapter 1, Williams had my undivided attention: “The Virtue of the Sabbath.”

I immediately recalled a meeting I had several years ago with a friend—radio host and film critic Michael Medved—about the very subject of the Sabbath. Michael wanted to know why Christians seem to ignore the commandment about keeping the Sabbath. He had the same question about his own Jewish brothers and sister, too. Although I know the early Christians began observing the day of rest on Sundays because that was the day of Jesus’s Resurrection—I really could not answer as to why the day—whether it be Saturday or Sunday—has lost its sense of holiness with so many people of faith. What I do know is that it wasn’t destroyed by a secular culture. I can blame a lot of our ills on that, but not this one. No, the failure to take a complete day and set it aside to rest in God is the fault of every single Christian and Jew who chooses to ignore this very clear command—myself often included. Read more ..


Book Review

American War Machine: Deep Politics, War on Drugs, and CIA Obfuscation

July 13th 2011

Book Covers - American war machine

American War Machine: Deep Politics, The CIA Global Drug Connection, and the Road to Afghanistan. Peter Dale Scott. Rowman and Littlefield. 2010. 408 pages.

In their 1964 book, The Invisible Government, journalists David Wise and Thomas B. Ross wrote that “there are two governments in the United States today. One is visible. The other is invisible. The first is the government that citizens read about in their newspapers and children study about in their civics class. The second is the interlocking, hidden machinery that carries out the policies of the United States in the Cold War. The second invisible government gathers intelligence, conducts espionage and plans and executes secret operations all over the globe.” In the 45 years since these words were written, we have learned a lot more about how the secret government operates, above and beyond the law, and continues to do so long after the Soviet demise.

Peter Dale’s Scott’s American War Machine represents an important contribution. Building on the themes of The War Conspiracy (1972) and Deep Politics and the Death of JFK (1996), Scott, a professor emeritus of English literature at UC Berkeley and founder of its peace studies program, highlights the influence of right-wing cabals connected to Wall Street and the oil and arms industries in driving American foreign policy in a militaristic direction. Carrying out clandestine operations financed through off-the books channels, including the narcotics trade, they exemplify the crisis of democratic accountability in the United States and have yielded disastrous consequences in contributing to the destabilization of volatile regions and to the growth of international terrorism and drug production.

Scott begins the book recounting an incident in which a Vietnam Special Forces veteran who witnessed opium loaded onto CIA Air America planes had a large hole burned into the door of his car the night before their scheduled interview as a warning to keep silent. For Scott, this small act of terrorism exemplifies the repressive dimension of the American government, which most citizens are loath to acknowledge. Read more ..


Book Review

A Long Goodbye: Soviet Withdrawal and Failure in Afghanistan

July 13th 2011

Book Covers - A Long goodbye

A Long Goodbye: The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan. Artemy M. Kalinovsky. Harvard. 2011. 320 pages.

There appear to be people who would like this book to be, in effect, Why the U.S. Will Fail in Afghanistan. Such people include the publicity department at Harvard University Press, whose press release for the book cites the "suspiciously familiar" set of reasons Artemy Kalinovsky cites for the Soviet debacle there. They also include investigative journalist Seymour Hersh, whose blurb for the book suggests he did not actually read it, since his remarks focus on this angle, which comprise about three (very good) pages on the subject. There are of course very good reasons, in both marketing and intellectual terms, for viewing The Long Goodbye through that lens (it is, after all, why I picked it up). But such a perspective also distorts what this book is and why it is valuable.

A more relevant, if still somewhat nationally narcissistic, historical analogy is more relevant: The U.S. and Vietnam. Before a few years ago, the comparison was downright proverbial: the Soviet decade-long (1979-89) adventure in Afghanistan was the USSR's Vietnam, the imperial incursion that brought a hegemon to its knees. Some would say it was actually worse, since it precipitated the end of the Soviet Union itself.

Kalinovsky does engage this analogy (a little). And he sees merit it. Certainly, he would agree that both Afghanistan and Vietnam posed knotty military problems (though he is among those who believes that the Soviet 40th army acquitted itself well). And that both generated dissent at home and disenchantment abroad. But the emphasis here is the reverse of what one typically sees in discussions of Vietnam: for the Soviets, maintaining credibility with its allies and the Third World were primary, while managing public opinion was not a serious issue until the war was almost over. Read more ..


Book Review

Rabbi Outcast: Rabbi Elmer Berger and Insights into Jewish Anti-Zionism

July 13th 2011

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Rabbi Outcast: Elmer Berger and American Jewish Anti-Zionism. Jack Ross. Potomac Books. 2011. 296 pages.

Rabbi Elmer Berger, the leading ideologist and main strategist of the American Council for Judaism (ACJ), the American Jewish organization created in 1942 specifically to oppose Zionism, is the subject of Jack Ross’ sympathetic and well-researched. In this biography, Ross ably portrays and analyzes the sources and evolution of Berger’s anti-Zionist thought and traces the rabbi’s career as probably one of the fiercest and most enduring American Jewish anti-Zionists.

From his early thirties until his death at the age of eighty-seven, Berger dedicated himself totally to an unrelenting campaign against Zionism. In the course of this endeavor, he constructed perhaps the most systematic, aggressive, and persistent Jewish ideological and public assault on Zionism and its partisans in the United States. Between 1942 and 1967, his most productive years, Berger played a leading role in the ACJ. As the organization’s executive director and chief ideologist, Berger closely supervised the formulation of almost every official ACJ document and organizational policy. Despite Lessing Rosenwald’s and Clarence Coleman’s formal leadership as the presidents of the organization, it was Berger who played the commanding role in shaping and guiding the ACJ’s anti-Zionist campaign.

The ACJ came into existence in 1942 as the response of a group of Reform rabbis and lay opponents of Zionism who were alarmed by what they considered to be the rapid growth of Zionism in the U.S. and its intrusion into Jewish communal and religious life. Theirs was a direct reaction to a February 1942 resolution of the Central Conference of American Rabbis (CCAR), the one-time stronghold of Reform anti-Zionism, favoring the creation of “Jewish army” in Palestine as well as to the gathering of the Zionist Biltmore Conference in New York in May in which the Zionist movement openly declared its end-goal—the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine. Read more ..


Book Review

The Notes: Ronald Reagan's Private Collection and a Look at the Mind of the Gipper

July 11th 2011

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The Notes: Ronald Reagan’s Private Collection of Stories and Wisdom. Douglas Brinkley, ed. Harper. 2011. 299 pages.

The Notes: Ronald Reagan’s Private Collection of Stories and Wisdom is the latest publication to promise direct insight into the mind and work of America’s fortieth president. It follows compilations of his letters, radio addresses and diaries which targeted the common perception of Reagan as a passive simpleton and revealed him as a prolific and attentive writer. These earlier publications are of unarguable value to students of Reagan, of revisionist intent or otherwise, and The Notes seeks to match their importance to researchers and enthusiasts. Like The Reagan Diaries, with whom the book shares an editor, Douglas Brinkley, The Notes have their origin in the expansive collection of the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. Rather than his own writing, the book comprises Reagan’s own trusted collection of historical quotes, aphorisms and jokes which served as a constant aide to his public communication over forty years. This is significant and potentially revealing content, but suffers here for want of coherent organization or useful explication.

Brinkley believes in the collection’s importance. It is “the Rosetta Stone” which reveals “the real Reagan”; its publication is “a landmark event in Reagan studies,” “equally important” to that of his diaries. “For if Reagan is remembered as the Great Communicator,” Brinkley asserts, “these notes provide the most effective way of decoding his craft.” The editor, though, leaves the decoding to the reader, presenting the note cards in their raw form, organised into loose categories. Unfortunately, he leaves us without certain tools for the job. Brinkley explains in the introduction that only forty percent of the notes are written on White House stationery, but gives no indication in the body of the book which ones, or when any of them might have been collected. Read more ..


Book Review

Fire and Rain: The Beatles and James Taylor and All that Troubled Water of 1970

July 11th 2011

Book Covers - Fire and Rain: the beatles

Fire and Rain: The Beatles, Simon & Garfunkel, James Taylor, CSNY, and the Lost Story of 1970. David Browne. DaCapo Press. 2011. 392 pages.

As he contemplated writing this book, Rolling Stone contributing editor David Browne conceived an ambitious agenda: “The more I thought about it,” he says, “the more 1970 felt like the lost year: the moment at which the remaining slivers of the idealism of the ‘60s began surrendering to the buzz-kill comedown of the decade ahead….I couldn’t resist revisiting a moment when sweetly sung music and ugly times coexisted, even fed off each other, in a world gone off course.” An entirely reasonable idea. The book itself, however, is uneven—strongest when considering the “sweetly sung music,” weakest when describing the “ugly times” in which that music appeared and trying to establish why the times and the tunes were connected.

Occasionally the errors are factual. It’s certainly true, for example, that “the two years leading up to [“Bridge Over Troubled Water’s] release had been brutalizing ones,” but the years 1968 and 1969, saturated with violence though they were, did not include assassination of “both Kennedys.” Slips like that would matter less if there were sustained discussion of the world beyond the music, but there isn’t. We just get summary versions of the late-60s litany of “one piece of bad news after another”-- the killings at Kent State and Jackson State, the Weathermen’s turn toward violence, the seemingly endless arguments over Vietnam, civil rights, and urban crisis. But Browne doesn’t try to explain why 1970’s events made idealism surrender. Read more ..


Book Review

Clothed in the Robes of Sovreignty: Founding Fathers and Masters of American Symbolism

July 11th 2011

Book Covers - Clothed in the robes of sovreignty

Clothed in the Robes of Sovereignty: The Continental Congress and the People Out of Doors. Benjamin H. Irvin. Oxford. 2011. 378 pages.

Clothed in the Robes of Sovereignty tells the story of an unsuccessful experiment: the attempt by the infant government of the United States to create a semiotics of the American Revolution. We all know that the Founding Fathers were masters of the English language (one part of their patrimony they could never forsake). The attendant attempt to create a national system of symbols and rituals to go along with manifestos like the Declaration of Independence preoccupied figures no less than John Adams and Benjamin Franklin. From the mid-1770s to the mid-1780s, a period spanning the formation of the First Continental Congress to the Treaty of Paris, government leaders declared holidays, struck medals, built monuments, created currency, and took other steps to culturally institutionalize their government. But while some of these steps toward creating what Benedict Anderson has famously called "imagined communities" had an effect temporarily, very few of them ever took root.

As Benjamin Irvin, assistant professor of history at the University of Arizona, explains, there are a number of reasons why. Perhaps the most important in his view is that that the people -- make that the People -- had an unofficial vote in the adoption of collective symbols, and didn't passively accept what their leaders handed them. So a parade might turn into a riot, for example. Ordinary people could also send messages of their own. Irvin's first chapter describes an episode when Congressional leaders were forced to cancel a ball to be held in Philadelphia to mark the arrival of Martha Washington, because they were warned that such frivolity, which appeared to contradict Congress's own pronouncements about frugality, led to threats that the tavern where the event was to be held would be attacked. Irvin uses the phrase "the people out of doors," which has become something of a buzz phrase among scholars of the period, to describe such dynamics. Read more ..


Film Review

The Tree of Life: Considering whether Human Existence is a Good Thing

July 10th 2011

Film - Tree of Life

Tree of Life. Director: Terrence Malick. Starring: Brad Pitt, Sean Penn, Jessica Chastain, Hunter McCracken. Length: 139 mins.

In a recent number of the Times Literary Supplement, Peter Singer paid an extravagant tribute to Derek Parfit, the ethicist whose magnum opus, On What Matters, he calls "the most significant work in ethics" in more than a century. Whether he is right or not, I am not competent to judge, but I do notice a blemish on the great man’s splendid surface that has apparently escaped Professor Singer’s attention. See if you can spot it.

Parfit also asks a less obvious question about all of human existence. If a massive asteroid hit Earth tomorrow, ending human history, would it have been a good thing that humans existed at all? Our answer may depend, Parfit thinks, not only on how we balance the suffering that has resulted from human existence against the happiness it has brought, but also on what weight we give to the badness of the fact that some people suffered greatly without having anything to compensate them for their suffering. Parfit answers his own question affirmatively, holding that human existence to this point has been a good thing, but he acknowledges that this may be wishful thinking.

Yet first of all, surely, our answer must depend on the fact that we ourselves are human, and that questions of value such as this are questions that only human beings are equipped to answer. They are therefore meaningless apart from the very humanity which is supposedly the matter under debate. In other words, it would not be possible for human existence to have been other than a good thing, since without human existence there would be no knowledge of good and therefore no good things. If the notion of a good thing is itself a good thing — as how can it not be? — then human existence must be a good thing. Indeed, the first and indispensable good thing. Read more ..



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