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Indigenous Peoples on Edge

Taiwan MPs Give Aborigines Greater Autonomy

January 21st 2014

Indigenous Peoples

Indigenous peoples’ push for legal autonomy in Taiwan reached a milestone this month when parliament changed a local governance law to give Austronesian aboriginal populations more power. The amended law removes a barricade to deeper tribal self-rule, a longstanding hope among aborigines, and may grab the attention of indigenous people elsewhere.

Taiwan’s parliament amended a law to extend self-governing rights to majority indigenous towns throughout the island. Under the law, townspeople will elect their own local representatives, rather than falling under non-aboriginal mayors of larger surrounding cities. Local leaders can also rename local government departments and decide how to spend money rather than following the budgets of higher officials. That could mean, for example, the council could decide to pave a road to an otherwise isolated group of mountain homes instead of resurfacing the town’s main highway. Read more ..


The Refugee Problem

Education for Syrian Refugees in Turkey – Beyond Camps

January 20th 2014

Syrian refugees

An estimated 700,000 Syrian refugees have poured into Turkey since the start of the Syrian war.  Many refugees have benefited from Turkey’s “temporary protection” policy and have received services ranging from food and shelter to education in camps along the border.  However, as the conflict has intensified, far greater numbers of Syrians populate makeshift camps or reside in host communities.  This has important ramifications for education: The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) estimates that of the one million Syrians that will reside in Turkey in 2014, 795,000 will be children, half-a-million of whom will be of school-going age. Read more ..


The Education Edge

Researchers Evaluate Peer-Led Team Learning in Cyberspace

January 19th 2014

video chat

Peer-Led Team Learning in undergraduate education is growing in popularity in universities across the country in courses in science, technology, engineering and mathematics – known collectively as the STEM disciplines. New research by faculty and students from the School of Science and the Center for Teaching and Learning at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis evaluates peer-led team learning for STEM focusing on its newest iteration – cyber peer-led team learning.

Peer-Led Team Learning, known as PLTL, is an innovative model of undergraduate instruction that augments the traditional lecture with a weekly two-hour workshop in which six to eight students work together to solve challenging problems under the guidance of a peer leader. The peer leader is a fellow undergraduate who has mastered the material and is a good communicator. In addition to course content instruction, he or she receives training in teaching methods such as how to work with students who attempt to dominate sessions and how to provide a boost to students who have difficulty participating. In addition to face-to-face PLTL, IUPUI has developed an online version know as cPLTL. Read more ..


Islam on Edge

Tajik Imams Get a Makeover

January 18th 2014

Koran and prayer beads

It has been said that in diversity there is beauty and strength. But the Tajik authorities, it seems, are more attracted to uniformity.

After introducing uniforms and dress codes for teachers, students, and religious pilgrims in recent years, the powers that be in Dushanbe have set their sights on giving the country's imams a wardrobe makeover.

The State Committee for Religious Affairs announced this week that the design for a new, standard issue, uniform for imams has been agreed upon.

"The uniforms are being tailored now, and the imams will soon have identical outfits," committee head Abdurahim Kholiqov told reporters in Dushanbe on January 14.

The uniform consists of a grey satin shirt, trousers, a turban, and a long powder-blue robe highlighted by traditional white embroidery on the cuffs, lapels, and front trim. The style, created by local female fashion designer Mukarrama Qayumova, has been approved by the state committee as well as the Council of Ulema, the country's highest religious authority. Read more ..


The Way We Are

What Comforts Targets of Prejudice the Most

January 17th 2014

Gay Pride

Rare in history are moments like the 1960s civil rights movement, in which members of a majority group vocally support minority groups in their fight against prejudice. New research not only confirms the power of speaking up for those facing prejudice but also underlines the importance of exactly what is communicated. Looking at YouTube video messages, researchers found that homosexual youth found the most comfort in messages that both supported them and advocated social change.

The new work takes a closer look at the "It Gets Better" YouTube campaign. "Like many people, I was fascinated and inspired when I saw the grassroots online movement that started in late 2010 of people posting video messages to teenagers who faced prejudice and harassment based on their actual or presumed sexual orientation," says Aneeta Rattan of London Business School. "I was not just moved as an individual, but as a researcher because this behavior – publicly addressing prejudice toward another group and communicating support for members of that group – is so rare that there is not a clear body of psychological science on it."  Read more ..


The Way We Are

Some African Countries Pushing for Tougher Anti-Gay Laws

January 16th 2014

Brazilian gay pride on parade

Nigeria's president has signed into law a bill that bans gay marriage, gay rights advocacy and public displays of affection between same-sex couples.  Homosexual acts were already illegal in Nigeria.  Human rights activists say the new law reflects a larger trend to ramp up anti-gay legislation and penalties.

Nigeria's new Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act has been condemned abroad but applauded at home. And it has given President Goodluck Jonathan a much-needed popularity boost.

"I thought the Western world will so much pressurize us to bow to it, but hearing that the president signed against it, in fact it's a kudos.  I'm very glad that he could stand [on] his feet and sign against such a taboo, because, I mean, it's un-African," said one citizen. "We don't want such a thing in our country." Many African countries inherited their anti-sodomy laws from colonial rulers.  Some have since added stiffer penalties and sought to broaden the list of offenses. Read more ..


The Edge of Sports

Athletes Hope to Bring Sibling Advantage to Sochi

January 15th 2014

Olympic torch

A sibling teammate is one advantage a handful of athletes have at the Olympic games.

This year, U.S. figure skating just nominated the sister-and-brother ice dancing team of Maia and Alex Shibutani to the Sochi squad.

At Vancouver 2010, Austrian brothers Andreas and Wolfgang Linger took gold in the doubles luge ahead of Latvian siblings Andris and Juris Sics.

A brother-sister cross country ski duo from Washington State is hoping to join the Olympic sibling tradition. One has a ticket to the Winter Games, while the other still hopes to clinch a spot.

Competitive streak
Erik and Sadie Bjornsen grew up in a close knit family near the remote hamlet of Mazama, Washington. An enviable 200 km Nordic trail system starts practically at their doorstep. Their mother, Mary Bjornsen, says all three of her children had an athletic upbringing with constant friendly competition.

"I can remember people wondering when Erik was going to start beating Sadie," Mary said. "It took a while actually. Sadie was fast." "Everything was a competition from running to the car, the first one there," Sadie said. "Or balancing at the [their father's] job site on a beam as long as you could." Read more ..


Nigeria on Edge

Nigerian Activists Decry Impact of New Anti-Gay Measure

January 14th 2014

Gay Pride

Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan has signed a law that makes gay marriage in Nigeria punishable by up to 14 years in prison. Activists say the law will have disastrous consequences for the gay community and beyond. Political analysts say the popular law will be a gain for the president, whose ruling party is going through severe internal struggles ahead of the 2015 elections.  

On Monday morning, it was illegal to be gay in Nigeria. By Monday night, gay marriage had become illegal, along with being a member of a gay organization - a crime that could mean up to 10 years in prison. 
 
Ifeanyi Kelly Orazulike is a rights activist and one of the few people in Nigeria who has spoken out against the law. He said the law may be intended to target gays, but it may harm others as well. For example, he said, gay men in Nigeria have a high HIV infection rate - 17 percent - and the law will keep some some men from getting treatment out of fear. For others, no treatment will be available. Read more ..


The EU Refugee Crises

Syrian Refugees Flood Bulgaria, Expose Flaws in EU Refugee Policy

January 13th 2014

Syrian Refugees in unhcr

Bulgaria is facing mounting criticism for its failure to adequately provide shelter, food and medical care to thousands of migrants who have entered the country over the past year, the majority of them Syrian asylum seekers. Aid and humanitarian groups are also worried about rising xenophobia, which, they say, has refugees living in a state of chronic fear. But some analysts say these criticisms aren’t fair and that too much is being expected from one of the poorest countries in the European Union.

Under the 1951 Refugee Convention, Bulgaria is required to take in and protect all asylum seekers. Last year, roughly 11,600 migrants crossed into Bulgaria from Turkey, most of them Syrian. What these refugees found when they got there wasn’t much better than what they left. ­­­­­­­

Boris Cheshirkov, spokesman for the UN Refugee Agency, (UNHCR) in Bulgaria, says up until recently, Bulgaria had only three refugee centers that could accommodate no more than 1,200 refugees. But these centers quickly filled up, and migrants were forced to sleep in hallways, tents and in the streets.  So the government seized several dilapidated public buildings to house the overflow, but these lacked heat and hot water and staffing.  Read more ..


The Race for LEDs

Why My Parents Have a Closet Full of Lightbulbs

January 12th 2014

LED bulb

My Mom stockpiles lightbulbs. One closet houses neatly stacked cardboard boxes of 60-watt and 100-watt bulbs, arranged by wattage and ready for use the moment an old bulb flickers. She orders them online, with each shipment adding to her supply. My parents don’t fear the apocalypse; they fear a world without incandescent bulbs, the energy-inefficient globes that people think are going lights-out starting January 1 under federal law.

Consumers are correct that conventional incandescent lightbulbs, which fail to meet new energy-efficiency standards, can no longer be legally manufactured or imported into the country. The old style 75- and 100-watt incandescent bulbs were phased out earlier this year. And this week the law hits 60- and 40-watt incandescent bulbs, as well. New incandescents that meet the new standards and generate almost the same brightness, however, have already hit the market. Read more ..


Israel’s Leading Edge

A Jordianian Named Yitzhak Rabin

January 12th 2014

IDF Officer training ceremony

In January 1996, a Muslim baby born in northern Jordan was given the name Yitzhak Rabin. The mother and father, who were supporters of peace with Israel, had wanted to honor the slain Israeli leader’s role in the Israeli-Jordanian peace treaty with King Hussein of Jordan in 1994. It was an unusual move, to say the least, and at the time, the parents’ decision to give their child a Jewish name, sparked an unprecedented uproar in Jordan.

The father lost his job and was harassed by family members and neighbors following the name choice. Jordan’s state registrar had told the parents that it was illegal to give the boy a Jewish name, but the Jordanian Ministry of Interior later ruled that it was legal. However, the continuing hostilities forced the family to flee. Yitzhak Rabin Namsy has been living in exile with his family for nearly 16 years - in Israel.

The Atlantic recently ran an article following up on Namsy, today 18, who lives in Eilat with his mother, and follows Judaism -- keeping the Sabbath and going to synagogue. Read more ..


The Ukraine on Edge

Lenin Statues Under Attack In Ukraine

January 12th 2014

Ukraine

If Vladimir Lenin had a grave, he would be turning in it.

Statues of the Bolshevik leader have fallen victim to a string of assaults in Ukraine that have left them missing limbs, splattered with paint, covered in insults and swastikas, bullet-riddled, and even smeared with excrement. In some cases, the statues were knocked off their pedestals, a feat requiring a considerable amount of physical exertion.

At least four have already been vandalized since the beginning of the year, including one statue toppled in the city of Berdychiv and another daubed with black paint near Odesa.

Communists have pinned the blame squarely on nationalists.
Communist flags fly next to the same statue of Lenin in Kyiv in 2009, three years before the "Euromaidan" unrest swept it off its feet.

Ukrainian lawmaker Igor Miroshnichenko, a member of the ultranationalist Svoboda party who personally felled a Lenin statue in the northeastern city of Okhtyrka last year, says this is, in fact, correct.

"Of course the dismantling of Lenin statues is directly linked to nationalists," Miroshnichenko says. "Any Ukrainian who loves his nation, remembers and respects its history, who remembers his ancestors, who loves and fights for his state, freedom, and independence, is a nationalist." Last month, a group of masked individuals carrying a flag of the Svoboda party toppled a statue of Lenin in downtown Kyiv. Read more ..


Significant Lives

Ariel Sharon Passes

January 11th 2014

Ariel Sharon Headshot

After eight years of a comatose state and after deterioration in his health this past month, Former Prime Minister Ariel Sharon finally passed away on Shabbat, January 11th, 2014, at the age of 85. Hi adopted son, Roni Schayak made the announcement.

Ariel Sharon, also known as Arik, was born as Ariel Scheinermann, (February 26th 1928). He was an Israeli statesman and retired general, who served as Israel's 11th Prime Minister.

He was born in Kfar Malal, then in the British Mandate of Palestine, to a family of Belarusian Jews. His parents fled the pogroms associated with the Russian Civil War. In 1942, at the young age of 14, Sharon joined the Gadna, a paramilitary youth battalion, and later the Haganah, the military precursor to the Israel Defense Forces (IDF).

Sharon was a commander in the Israeli Army from its inception in 1948. As a paratrooper and then an officer, he participated prominently in the 1948 War of Independence, becoming a platoon commander in the Alexandroni Brigade and participating in many battles. He was an instrumental figure in the creation of Unit 101 - a Special Forces unit, the Retribution Operations, the 1956 Suez War, the Six-Day War of 1967, the War of Attrition and the Yom-Kippur War of 1973. As Minister of Defense, he directed the 1982 Lebanon War.

During his military career, he was considered the greatest field commander in Israel's history, and one of the country's greatest ever military strategists. His career was characterized by insubordination, aggression and disobedience, but also brilliance as a commander. After his assault of the Sinai in the Six-Day War and his encirclement of the Egyptian Third Army in the Yom Kippur War, the Israeli public nicknamed him "The King of Israel" and "The Lion of G-d".

Read more ..

Race and Racism

Unknown Factors in the Infant Mortality Gap Among U.S. Blacks and Whites

January 10th 2014

Click to select Image

The unobservable factors that underpin the infant mortality gap between blacks and whites have persisted for more than 20 years and now appear to play a larger role than the observable factors, according to a new study by Michigan State University researchers. Published in the American Journal of Public Health, the study is the first to investigate long-term changes in both sets of factors, providing vital context of the scope of the problem as medical experts around the world try to solve the mystery behind the gap.

“What’s surprising about our findings is that when we take out all the factors we can observe – including mother’s age, education level, marital status and state of residence – the difference in the rate in which black and white infants die remained absolutely stable for two decades,” said Steven Haider, professor of economics. “We made no progress in shrinking that part of the gap.” Read more ..


France and Islam

French Court Dismisses Veil Ban Challenge

January 9th 2014

Muslim Woman

A court in France has rejected a challenge to the country's controversial veil ban law and sentenced a woman for flouting it and insulting police. But the story isn't over: Europe's highest court will hear another challenge to the legislation.

The court in Versailles on Wednesday fined Muslim convert Cassandra Belin 150 euros - or just over $200 - and gave her a one-month suspended sentence for wearing the face-covering niqab in public and for insulting police who ticketed her.  The scuffle between Belin, her husband and police made headlines in France last year, and sparked riots in the Paris suburb of Trappes.

The court also dismissed a petition by Belin's lawyer Philippe Bataille challenging the constitutionality of France's 2011 law that bars the wearing of most face covers in public. The legislation is broad, but some believe it takes aim at France's 5 million-strong Muslim community - even though only a small minority of women wear the niqab. Read more ..


Ancient Americans

University of Michigan Grants Half of its Native American Collection from Burial Sites to Modern Tribes

January 8th 2014

With the beginning of the new year, the University of Michigan has completed the transfer of nearly half of its collections of Native American human remains and cultural objects from burial sites in Michigan to tribes that lived in the areas where they were found.

“This is a significant milestone as we work to fulfill the letter and the spirit of the law mandating the repatriation of these collections,” said Stephen Forrest, former vice president for research, who initiated the process that has led to the transfers.

Forrest stepped down as vice president December 31, 2013, to focus full time on his responsibilities as a faculty member.

To date, collections from 120 sites have been transferred — 111 of them in 2013 alone. The university worked with 14 Michigan tribes in arranging these transfers. The collections are being transferred under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA), a law passed in 1990 requiring museums to follow a mandatory process for transferring human remains and associated funerary objects to tribes that have requested them and have the legal right to them. Read more ..


The Way We Are

Reports Of Holy Vision Sparks Mass Pilgrimage In Georgia

January 7th 2014

Orthodox Church Azerbaijan

Residents of Mtskheta heaved a sigh of relief on January 7 as visitors finally trickled out of their city. Rumors of a holy apparition had drawn hordes of pilgrims from across the country to the ancient Georgian town.

The pilgrimage to Mtskheta, one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, began last week. A nun was reported to have had a vision that Father Gabriel, an Orthodox monk buried at a local monastery and canonized in 2012, would grant two wishes to all those who visited his grave before Orthodox Christmas on January 7.

Thousands of faithful quickly streamed to the town some 20 kilometers north of Tbilisi, creating chaos on the roads and a giant queue in front of the grave.

Local police were deployed to ease road traffic and prevent stampedes, ordering pilgrims to move on after briefly touching the tombstone.

According to the nun, Mother Paraskeva, Father Gabriel appeared to her as she prayed at his grave days before Orthodox Christmas.

"When I prayed at the grave of Father Gabriel, I had a vision that he would fulfill the wishes of all those who come here to ask for his benediction," she said. "This miracle happened, and this is why so many people have come here." But she played down reports that she had advised visiting the grave before Christmas, saying that Orthodox followers were welcome any time in Mtskheta and that the saint would grant wishes for everyone in Georgia. Read more ..


The Healthy Edge

One-Third of American Teens Get Their Weed from Medical Marijuana Users

January 7th 2014

According to a release from the University of Michigan, the use of synthetic marijuana by American teenagers dropped substantially in 2013, while a sharply increasing proportion of them see great risk in using so-called “bath salts.” Both of these drugs are synthetics sold over the counter in many outlets such as gas stations and convenience stores, as well as on the Internet. They have been the subject of great concern because of their serious and unpredictable consequences for the user’s health.

These and other findings come from Monitoring the Future study conducted by the Ann Arbor-based institution, which is funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse. National samples of 40,000 to 50,000 students in three grades (eight, 10 and 12) have been surveyed every year since 1991. Read more ..


Healthcare on Edge

Cameroon Cracks Down on Illegal Hospitals

January 6th 2014

nurse w/stethoscope

Cameroon has started a crackdown on medical institutions, including Chinese traditional medical practitioners, who are practicing illegally in the country. The health ministry says thousands of hospitals operating without authorization are responsible for the deaths of untold numbers of patients.

Twenty-seven-year-old Mirabel Ndi watches helplessly as her two-month-old baby cries in pain. She says that for the entire night, she had been at the private clinic in Yaounde with no medical staff on duty. “I came to the hospital and there is nobody to help," she said. "Nobody to help.”

Since the government of Cameroon started a crackdown on what it calls illegal hospitals, staff members have gone into hiding. The secretary-general of Cameroon's National Medical Council, Bijoko Atangana says the Council will continue to pursue order in the sector. Read more ..


Israelis and Palestinians

Gush Etzion Doctor Brings Hope and Care to Ailing Palestinians

January 5th 2014

Doctor-Patient-Syrian

On a day where snow still covers the Judean hills, a Jewish doctor from Efrat drives into the neighboring Palestinian village called Wadi Nis. He is greeted by the local Palestinian villagers with smiles and warm hellos. “There’s the doctor,” says one Palestinian woman to another as Dr. Yitzchak Glick lowers his car window to say hello.

To the villagers of Wadi Nis and six other Palestinian villages in the Gush Etzion region, the kippah-wearing Dr. Glick is a familiar and welcome face. The U.S.-born doctor, who made aliyah with his parents in 1974, makes personal house calls every week, providing medical treatment to ailing Palestinians free of charge.

When Dr. Glick sees Mohammed, a construction worker who he treated for injuries from a fall from a building a couple of years ago, he stops to get out of the car. With his red keffiyeh, Mohammed greets Dr. Glick with a hug and the two converse as old-time buddies. “The people here don’t forget what I and other doctors from Efrat have done – from treating expectant mothers and providing free medicine to saving lives, you become part of their families.” Read more ..


Egypt After Morsi

Egypt: A Tinderbox Waiting for a Spark

January 4th 2014

Egypt Protests

Nearly six months after the mass uprising-cum-coup that toppled Mohammed Morsi, the key cleavages of Egypt’s domestic political conflict are not only unresolved, but unresolvable. The generals who removed Morsi are engaged in an existential struggle with the Muslim Brotherhood: They believe they must destroy the Brotherhood -- by, for instance, designating it a terrorist organization -- or else the Brotherhood will return to power and destroy them.

Meanwhile, Sinai-based jihadists have used Morsi’s removal as a pretext for intensifying their violence, and have increasingly hit targets west of the Suez Canal. Even the Brotherhood’s fiercest opponents are fighting among themselves: the coalition of entrenched state institutions and leftist political parties that rebelled against Morsi is fraying, and the youth activists who backed Morsi’s ouster in July are now protesting against the military-backed government, which has responded by arresting their leaders. Read more ..


The Healthy Edge

Relax, Cheerios Cereal Has No Genetically Modified Ingredients

January 4th 2014

Genetically modified ingredients have been eliminated from one of the best-known breakfast cereals in the United States after a year-long campaign from environmental groups.

Food industry giant General Mills says it took genetically modified organisms (GMOs) out of its Cheerios brand not out of safety concerns, but in response to consumer demands.

Starting a little over a year ago, The “GMO Inside” environmental coalition rallied tens of thousands of consumers to flood the Cheerios Facebook page and call and email the company telling them to take GMOs out of the cereal.

“We just wanted to encourage General Mills to offer non-GMO Cheerios to consumers here in the United States just like they do in Europe,” said Todd Larsen, a coalition member with Green America. “And apparently tens of thousands of people agreed with us.” Read more ..


The Future Edge

An Asimov-Style Question For 2014: What Will Life Be Like In 2064?

January 3rd 2014

Terminator Robot

In 1964, Isaac Asimov -- the author of such science fiction classics as "I, Robot" and "The End of Eternity" -- attended the World's Fair in New York.

The fair featured a display dedicated to advances in electrical appliances since the start of the 20th century. And it left Asimov asking himself a question: what further advances would the world see 50 years on?

His resulting essay, "Visit To The World's Fair Of 2014," was in many ways prescient. Asimov, among other things, predicted a world of 3D movies, cordless home appliances, driverless cars, and screens that allow you to make video phone calls, read books, or study documents.

Other forecasts, meanwhile, have yet to be realized. Asimov predicted that by 2014, much of humanity would be living underground or underwater to maximize the use of the Earth's surface for agricultural production. He imagined robots that would tend gardens, and cars that would hover over roads rather than driving directly on them. Read more ..


Egypt After Morsi

Young Egyptians Defy Politics, Weather to Practice Parkour

January 2nd 2014

Cairo Violence Dec 2012

A law recently passed in Egypt makes it illegal for groups of more than 10 people to gather. However, every Friday a group of young men meets on the outskirts of Cairo, not to protest, but to practice a sport called Parkour that is sweeping the country.

It’s Friday morning in the suburbs of Cairo. A dozen young men meet to practice Parkour, the urban gymnastics craze that’s swept the world.

Come rain or shine, the group called PKE - or Parkour Egypt - meets every week to work on moves.

The few onlookers seem impressed, although Ahmed Nasser Saif says they're not always appreciated. “They call me crazy man or they don’t know what I do. So I’m strange for that life. Why I run? Why I climb some buildings?” – said Nasser Saif. Read more ..


The Way We Are

Sierra Leone's First-Ever Krio Bible Makes Impact

January 1st 2014

Holy Bible

After decades of work, the first translation of the Bible into the Sierra Leone dialect of Krio was published less than a year ago.  The translation is gaining widespread use, and is helping to increase church attendance in the capital, Freetown.

The Warren Memorial Church in Freetown has chosen to use the newly created Krio Bible at its services.  People sing in Krio and there is also preaching in Krio.

This version of the Bible has actually taken decades to create explains Ruby Pearce, who helps run the services at the church.  She said the Bible Society of Sierra Leone had the idea for the creation of the first ever Krio Bible in the 1970's.

Pearce said bible translators came to Sierra Leone in 1974, but were only working part time.  The translation of the New Testament was finished in the 1980's.  Translation of the Old Testament stretched well into the new century, until the Krio Bible was finally completed in the spring of 2013. Read more ..


The Edge of Healthcare

Advances And Setbacks In Global Health During 2013

December 31st 2013

child being vaccinated

From the fight against HIV/AIDS and polio to the spread of new deadly viruses, from the development of artificial-limb technology to new regulations allowing better access to pain killers in Ukraine -- 2013 had its share of highs and lows when it came to health and medicine.

2013 saw advances in the fight against HIV and AIDS. Scientists from the Queensland Institute of Medical Research announced in January that they had discovered how to modify a protein in HIV to protect against common infections. Associate Professor David Harrich said that if clinical trials prove successful, the treatment could be an effective way of disarming AIDS.

"This therapy is potentially a cure for AIDS. So it's not a cure for HIV infection, but it potentially could end the disease. This protein present in immune cells would help to maintain a healthy immune system so that patients would be able to handle normal infections," Harrich said.

In another potential breakthrough, scientists announced in March that a baby born with HIV appears to have been cured after very early treatment with standard drug therapy. More tests need to be carried out to determine if the treatment could have the same effect on other children, but the Mississippi child had no signs of infection after about a year off HIV drugs.

On the polio front, outbreaks in Pakistan and Syria threatened to derail efforts to eradicate the highly infectious disease. In Pakistan, one of the three countries where polio remains endemic, opposition from Islamic militants has hampered efforts to immunize children, with vaccination teams kidnapped or murdered in some cases. Read more ..


Turkey on Edge

The Increasingly Sharp Islamist Differences Besetting Turkey

December 30th 2013

Turkish military parade with flags

The news last week about a corruption scandal in Turkey seems on the surface a traditional case of prosecutors ferreting out wrongdoers in high places. But the turmoil that threatens Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan's government has been a long time coming and is the most public manifestation of a struggle between Turkey's two main Islamic-conservative factions hitherto united under the governing party: the prime minister's Justice and Development Party, known as AKP, and the influential, popular Gulen movement.

The past year has already been challenging for Mr. Erdogan. Demonstrations that began in May grew out of anger over plans to develop Istanbul's Gezi Park and were a liberal affair, challenging the prime minister's increasingly autocratic rule. The Gezi Park occupants would seem to have little in common with the Gulen movement, an opaque, Sufi-inspired group known for its Islamic piety and, until recently, its support for Mr. Erdogan. But the Gezi and Gulen movements are now de facto, if not actual, partners with similar aims: resisting Mr. Erdogan's near-total power. Read more ..


Counting Palestinians

The Unique Tragedy of Palestinian Refugees

December 30th 2013

Click to select Image

UNRWA, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency, is tasked with assisting Palestinian refugees. The films, pictures, slides and prints the organization has collected on the refugees' plight will now be displayed in Jerusalem's Old City in an exhibit entitled "The Long Journey," which will then tour Europe and North America. The images, available online, are heartbreakingly powerful and emotive.

Like all refugee stories, Palestinian stories of displacement and loss needs to be told. The question is what lessons one takes out of it. For Israel, as many prominent Israeli intellectuals, historians and politicians have argued for decades, the Palestinian plight is one that must be confronted and acknowledged with honesty. Read more ..


Iran's Nukes

The Essential Linkage between Iran and the Conflict in Syria

December 29th 2013

Assad and Ahmadinejad

Middle Easterners fear the White House will return to bad habits by dropping its demands on Syria in order to appease Iran.

Back in 2006, during a particularly low point in the U.S. occupation of Iraq, the congressionally mandated Iraq Study Group issued a report in which the central contentious proposition was that "all key issues in the region are inextricably linked." Accordingly, to stem the deterioration in Iraq and "achieve its goals" in the Middle East, the report posited the U.S. would have to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict.

Seven years on, while the conceit linking Iraq to the Arab-Israeli peace process is no longer relevant, the concept of linkage appears to be making a comeback -- this time in the context of Iran and war in Syria. During a recent trip to Lebanon, a concern I heard repeatedly voiced was that if Tehran played ball and signed onto a nuclear deal, the Obama administration might be prepared to acknowledge Iranian interests in Syria and drop its demand that President Bashar al-Assad step down.

The prospect of somehow tying Iran's nuclear file to ceasefire talks in Syria was of great concern to many of the Middle Easterners I spoke to. And for good reason -- linking international efforts to roll back Iran's nuclear program in order to achieve a ceasefire in Syria would be ill advised.

To be sure, Iran and Syria are inexorably connected. For more than three decades, the Shiite theocracy in Tehran and the Alawite regime in Damascus have been strategic partners. And today, Iran is the leading supporter of the Assad regime, providing the weapons, technical assistance, and troops that have enabled Assad to combat the insurgency.

But Iran cannot serve as a productive interlocutor in Syria. Regardless of whether the "first step" nuclear framework agreement with Iran progresses to a full-scale deal, Tehran views the survival of a friendly regime in Damascus to be a priority. Syria is the gateway of Iranian influence in the Levant. If Assad was toppled, he would likely be replaced with a Sunni regime hostile to Iran that would sever the key supply line between Tehran and its Lebanese Shiite militia proxy, Hezbollah. Read more ..


Afghanistan on Edge

Afghan Authorities Probe Child Marriage

December 29th 2013

Afghanistan tortured girl

Authorities in the Afghan province of Jowzjan have annulled the marriage of a seven-year-old girl, whose father admits giving her away in return for $2,000.

Authorities in the northern Afghan province of Jowzjan have launched a probe against a father, who has acknowledged forcing his seven-year-old daughter to marry a man five times her age. Ramadan, who like many Afghans goes by one name, blamed his action on poverty that has plagued his family.

"We didn't have a place to live, we were hungry, we had debts," he said. "I regretted doing this the day I did it. I regret it now." He acknowledged marrying off his underage daughter in return of some $2,000, and foodstuffs, including rice and wheat. Read more ..


Saudi Arabia on Edge

Saudi Arabia Goes to War on Twitter

December 28th 2013

The Saudi government views Twitter as a national security threat.

Two studies released in November show once again Saudi Arabia's extraordinary appetite for Twitter compared to that in other countries. This has renewed interest in the potential for social media to facilitate political mobilization in the kingdom. Indeed, the Saudi Twittersphere reveals significant public discontent with the government's performance on addressing domestic problems like unemployment and corruption. However, persistent efforts by a relatively small number of Saudis using Twitter and other social media to mobilize their fellow citizens for reform have generally failed to translate into large-scale action. The fact that some of the kingdom's most popular Twitterati are clerics underscores the conservative nature of Saudi society, including the Twitter-happy youth. Read more ..


Inside Jewry

Origins and Meanings of Ashkenazic Last Names

December 28th 2013

Lviv synagogue remnant

Ashkenazic Jews were among the last Europeans to take family names. Some German-speaking Jews took last names as early as the 17th century, but the overwhelming majority of Jews lived in Eastern Europe and did not take last names until compelled to do so. The process began in the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1787 and ended in Czarist Russia in 1844.

In attempting to build modern nation-states, the authorities insisted that Jews take last names so that they could be taxed, drafted, and educated (in that order of importance). For centuries, Jewish communal leaders were responsible for collecting taxes from the Jewish population on behalf of the government, and in some cases were responsible for filling draft quotas. Education was traditionally an internal Jewish affair.

Until this period, Jewish names generally changed with every generation. For example, if Moses son of Mendel (Moyshe ben Mendel) married Sarah daughter of Rebecca (Sora bas Rifke), had a boy and named it Samuel (Shmuel), the child would be called Shmuel ben Moyshe. If they had a girl and named her Feygele, she would be called Feygele bas Sora.

Read more ..

The Toxic Edge

Lauded Public Health Researcher Also Worked for Industry

December 28th 2013

Peeling lead paint

At a memorial service held in November in her favorite classroom, Patricia Buffler was hailed as a champion of children.

While dean of the School of Public Health at the University of California, Berkeley, Buffler started the nation’s largest program researching the causes of childhood leukemia. She expanded her study of this rare disease after stepping down as dean in 1998, continuing the work until she died unexpectedly in late September at the age of 75.

Buffler’s research, backed by more than $35 million in federal grants, could save lives. Her team concluded that sending your child to daycare might reduce the risk of getting leukemia, perhaps by bolstering the immune system. It found strong evidence suggesting that preschoolers should stay away from wet paint. One of her graduate students at the memorial was struck by something Buffler once said: “Children are fragile, so it is our role to protect them.” Read more ..


The Toxic Edge

High Bladder Cancer Rate Shrouds New York Plant, Exposing Workplace Chemical Hazards

December 27th 2013

Emergency Medical

Ray Kline, it’s said, bled Goodyear blue.

Compact and laconic, Kline signed on as an operator at the Goodyear chemical plant here in 1960 and logged just short of 40 years. He routinely worked six days a week, 12 hours a day, retiring in 1999 as head of maintenance. “I made a good living,” Kline said in the dining room of his comfortable home in Lewiston, N.Y., two blocks from the Niagara River -- betraying little bitterness over the price his family paid for economic stability. Kline, 75, has endured two bouts of bladder cancer. Strong evidence suggests the disease was work-related.

In a yet-to-be published study, federal health investigators have confirmed 50 cases of bladder cancer among plant employees through 2007, nearly three times the number that would have been expected in the general population of New York State. The unofficial tally to date, compiled by a lawyer for some of the cancer victims, is 58 cases. Read more ..


Singapore on Edge

Singapore Fights Image As Swiss Banker of Asia

December 27th 2013

$1B US Currency

In a place that restricts everything from chewing gum to pungent durian fruit.  Singaporean authorities pride themselves in having a high bar for strict laws and a low crime rate to match. So they’ve been none too pleased by reports that tax dodgers, corrupt officials, and money launderers might be closing their Swiss bank accounts and moving funds to Singapore.

In response, the government is ramping up measures to battle this reputation as a tax haven. It is now negotiating a deal with the United States that requires banks in Singapore to share details of Americans’ offshore assets with the Internal Revenue Service. The United States just signed the so-called FATCA (Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act) with six other governments this month. “There is no basis for the allegation that wealthy individuals can hide money and avoid taxes in Singapore,” a Ministry of Finance spokesperson told said. Read more ..


China on Edge

Rising rivalry with China Increasingly Concerns U.S. Senate

December 26th 2013

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The recent flare-up in tensions in the Pacific has raised new doubts about America and China’s ability to peacefully coexist as both set their sights on Asia’s booming potential. On a range of issues — from territorial claims to business practices, economic policies to the environment — the two countries’ struggle to find common ground is all but certain to dominate the headlines for years to come.

Julian Pecquet visited China for 10 days in October at the invitation of the China-United States Exchange Foundation, a Hong Kong-based nonprofit that funds visits by lawmakers, journalists and others. He found that Beijing’s suspicions about the great power across the Pacific mirrored those in Washington, DC.

Congress is taking a hard line against China in the showdown over a handful of tiny Pacific islands, complicating the Obama administration’s efforts to manage the issue.

Senators of both parties are demanding that China rescind its new air defense zone over Japanese-held islands, going beyond the White House's own admonishments. And several Republicans have taken issue with the administration's recommendation that U.S. air carriers abide by China's request to be informed of all flights through the zone.
Read more ..


The Way We Are

Growing Up 'America' In Pakistan's Tribal Areas

December 25th 2013

Taliban in Swat

In the remote village of Tedi Bazaar, in Pakistan's volatile northwestern tribal areas, one woman's unusual name makes her stand out from the crowd: America Bibi.

The 65-year-old Pashtun grandmother says her name honors the unfulfilled American dream of her father, Akhtar Munir. Shortly after World War II, Munir left his village in pursuit of a better life in the United States. The journey, however, didn't go as planned.

"My father was a young man, eager to go to America," Bibi explains. "He went to India and boarded a ship there to sail to America. He was a handsome man with blue eyes, but he was illiterate. While sitting inside the ship, he was holding a newspaper upside-down and this led to his arrest. He was sent to Mumbai, and spent three years in prison there." Read more ..


Egypt's Second Revolution

Women in Egypt Treated Worse Than in Other Arab Nations

December 24th 2013

Egyptian cop and lady

Following the political upheaval in Egypt and the lack of a cohesive government authority, a survey reveals that as far as women's rights and women's security, "post-Arab Spring" Egypt is the worst country in the Arab world, according to the pollsters in a report released on Tuesday.

According to the Thomson Reuters Foundation, sex crimes against women, high rates of female genital mutilation, so-called "honor killings," and the increasing violence and Islamist unrest following the Arab Spring uprisings are responsible for making Egypt the worst country in which to be a woman in the Arab world.

Laws that single-out women and the increase in human trafficking and sex-slavery are additions to the list of social pathologies that have placed Egypt at the bottom of a ranking of 22 Arab states, according to the Thomson Reuters Foundation's Crina Boros.  Read more ..


The Environmental Edge

Life In The Shadow Of The Soviet Union's Chemical Arsenal

December 23rd 2013

Chernobyl Today

Seventy-seven-year-old Klavdia and her husband Mikhail, 84, are struggling to put on a gas mask.

Mikhail: "So, I undid the zipper. Now, I'm looking at these straps. I loosened them. I'm loosening and loosening."
Klavdia: "We should have thrown these things out ages ago."
Mikhail: "I've unfastened this thing."
Klavdia: "That thing is supposed to reach over to here and that's it."

All the residents of the village of Mirny, in Russia's central Kirov Oblast, have gas masks tucked away somewhere, in cupboards or under beds. Klavdia explains how she was required to pick up the masks from local authorities about five years ago. She signed a receipt, tucked them away, and hasn't needed to think about them since.

But in Mirny, you never know. The village is located just across the railroad tracks from the Maradykovsky chemical-weapons facility -- one of eight sites in Russia where massive stockpiles of Soviet-era chemical weapons are being destroyed. Over the last seven years, nearly 7,000 tons of nerve agents like sarin, blister agents like Lewisite, and other deadly chemicals have been neutralized at Maradykovsky. Read more ..


The Healthy Edge

Two-Pronged Approach Helps Kids with ADHD and Aggression Disorders

December 22nd 2013

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Prescribing both a stimulant and an antipsychotic drug to children with physical aggression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), along with teaching parents to use behavior management techniques, reduces aggressive and serious behavioral problems in the children, according to a study conducted by researchers at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center.

The study was conducted in conjunction with the University of Pittsburgh, Stony Brook University in New York and Case Western Reserve University in Ohio. The findings published online this week ahead of publication in the January issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

“Combination pharmacotherapy is becoming common in child and adolescent psychiatry, but there has been little research evaluating it,” said first author Michael Aman, director of clinical trials at Ohio State’s Nisonger Center and emeritus professor of psychology. Read more ..



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