Inside the Middle East
|Laurie Balbo||December 18th 2011|
Often-ridiculed craft with ancient Middle Eastern roots serves as gentle conduit to change.
It’s pretty much agreed that the origins of knitting are placed somewhere in the Middle East. The craft spread to Europe via Mediterranean trade routes, then on to the Americas with European colonization. Some of the earliest examples of knitting have been found in Egypt: a tatty pair of Egyptian woolen socks estimated to be 1500 years old are on display in London’s Victoria and Albert Museum.
I confess. I knit like a woman possessed. Knit my whole life: through lectures, on subways, in meetings, and sitting in the dentist’s chair. And this Chick with Sticks has endured every joke in the surprisingly large book of knitting wisecracks.
Knitting flows in and out of style with tidal precision, but once hooked, a knitter generally stays committed for life. Knitters seek other knitters. Knitting groups form. And in short order the knitting becomes secondary to the conversation and connectivity of the knitters themselves. Therein lays its power.
The internet amplifies this natural tendency of knitters to sit and knit and chit and chat, and there are plenty of knitting web sites to choose from. Several specific to the Middle East, knitters have come online via fiber arts website Ravelry which offers members a chance to create sub-groups bespoke to their particular interests.
There’s Muslim Knitters where you can get tips on knitting a cool kafti, and Veiled Knitters offers recipes for yarmulke and flowing headscarves. Read more ..
India and America
|Kumar Barve||December 15th 2011|
As you may know, I joined Governor Martin O’Malley and more than 100 other business leaders, educators and elected officials as he led the first economic development and trade mission to India by a sitting Maryland Governor. Our successful trip deepened the close relationship between Maryland and India. Already, India is Maryland’s 12th largest export market and our 13th largest import market.
Over six days spent in Hyderabad, Mumbai and New Delhi, we helped Maryland companies sign deals worth $60 million dollars. Some of these deals are:
Jasco Nutri Foods plans to invest $10 million in opening a facility on a 1,500 acre location yet to be determined in Maryland. This facility could generate up to 100 jobs when operational.
Sheladia Associates of Rockville – an engineering, architecture and development company – will partner with M/S Sai Matarani Toll Ways Ltd. and Gayatri Projects Ltd. in a deal valued at $3.7 million to provide design and project management services to upgrade a portion of an Indian National Highway to a four lane highway in the State of Orissa. Read more ..
The Edge of Sport
|Abigail Klein Leichman ||December 14th 2011|
|Lee Korzits wins the gold at an Australian women's competition|
Olympic hopeful Lee Korzits nearly quit the sport she loves but came back with renewed vigor as seen in the 2011 World Sailing Championships.
For Israeli windsurfing champion Lee-el Korzits, "it's all about getting to the Olympics. That's the dream and we work very hard for it from the time we are young."
And now she's one step closer. Earlier this week, on December 11, Korzits won the gold medal in the Women's RS:X competition at the Perth (Australia) 2011 ISAF Sailing World Championships -- the second of four qualifying rounds leading up the 2012 London Olympics. Read more ..
|Martin Barillas||December 13th 2011|
Cutting Edge Senior Correspondent
|Archbishop Gustavo Garcia-Siller of San Antonio TX|
Writing in Spanish and English, 33 Catholic bishops of the US released a frank "letter to immigrants" suggesting illegal immigrants deserve thanks from Americans, while calling for "denunciation of the forces which oppress them."
The bishops, who the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops identified as 'Hispanic/Latino', support comprehensive immigration reform and a path to citizenship for illegal immigrants, a position which they reiterate in the letter. In it, they offer further support to illegal immigrants - the vast majority of whom come from Mexico. The letter was released by San Antonio Archbishop Gustavo Garcia-Siller and Los Angeles Archbishop Jose Gomez, the highest ranking Mexican-Americans in the U.S. Catholic Conference of Bishops. Archbishop Gomez and Archbishop Garcia-Siller are U.S. citizens born in Mexico, while the former is a member of Opus Dei. The rest of the bishops publishing the letter are U.S.-born. Read more ..
Edge Next Society
|Divya Menon||December 12th 2011|
Research shows that feeling good about your country also makes you feel good about your own life—and many people take that as good news. But Matthew Wright, a political scientist at American University, and Tim Reeskens, a sociologist from Catholic University in Belgium, suspected that the positive findings about nationalism weren’t telling the whole story. “It’s fine to say pride in your country makes you happy,” says Wright. “But what kind of pride are we talking about? That turns out to make a lot of difference.”
Reeskens and Wright divided national pride into two species. “Ethnic” nationalism sees ancestry—typically expressed in racial or religious terms—as the key social boundary defining the national “we.” “Civic” nationalism is more inclusive, requiring only respect for a country’s institutions and laws for belonging. Unlike ethnic nationalism, that view is open to minorities or immigrants, at least in principle.
The study authors analyzed the responses to four key questions by 40,677 individuals from 31 countries, drawn from the 2008 wave of the cross-national European Values Study. One question assessed “subjective well being,” indicated by general satisfaction with life. Another measured national pride. The other two neatly indicated ethnic and civic national boundaries—asking respondents to rate the importance of respect for laws and institutions, and of ancestry, to being a true . . . fill in the blank . . . German, Swede, Spaniard. The researchers controlled for such factors as gender, work status, urban or rural residence, and the country’s per capita GDP. Read more ..
London on Edge
|Jude Freeman||December 9th 2011|
Cutting Edge London Correspondent
In the days after the August riots few disagreed that something had to change. With five lives lost and an estimated cost to the taxpayer of £100 million, scenes of burning buildings, looting and uncontrolled violence shook the nation.
Though the finger of blame couldn’t be rested upon a single cause, the shock to the average citizen’s system opened up a nationwide dialogue on the direction British society was taking. Impassioned pleas from community leaders flooded the nations television screens along with assurances from David Cameron that government would re-establish the nation’s lost sense of security. The diagnosis was far from simple. A clamor of voices from all sections of society put forward a host of theories, poverty, unemployment and social exclusion being amongst the many. Read more ..
The Way We Are
|Divya Menon||December 8th 2011|
“Face recognition is an important social skill, but not all of us are equally good at it,” says Beijing Normal University cognitive psychologist Jia Liu. But what accounts for the difference? A new study by Liu and colleagues Ruosi Wang, Jingguang Li, Huizhen Fang, and Moqian Tian provides evidence that the inequality of abilities is rooted in the unique way in which the mind perceives faces. “Individuals who process faces more holistically”—that is, as an integrated whole—“are better at face recognition,” says Liu.
In daily life, we recognize faces both holistically and also “analytically”—that is, picking out individual parts, such as eyes or nose. But while the brain uses analytical processing for all kinds of objects—cars, houses, animals—“holistic processing is thought to be especially critical to face recognition,” says Liu.
To isolate holistic processing as the key to face recognition, the researchers first measured the ability of study participants—337 male and female students—to remember whole faces, using a task in which they had to select studied faces and flowers from among unfamiliar ones. Read more ..
America on Edge
|John Aloysius Farrell||December 8th 2011|
Dave Esmay made a good life for his family as a construction superintendent in North Carolina, managing commercial projects worth $15 million to $30 million.
Then came the Great Recession. In North Carolina, and many other states, the construction industry collapsed. And Esmay lost his job.
His family life was wracked by “stress ... from not having any money,” Esmay recalls. He cashed in his retirement account and sold his truck, and when the Esmays could not make the payments on their mortgage, they lost their home.
A daughter postponed plans for post-graduate study, and took work as a waitress.
Esmay couldn’t afford to keep paying the orthodontist, so he took his son’s braces off himself, with a pair of pliers. Read more ..
America on Edge
|John Reynolds||December 5th 2011|
Florida is home to one of the highest percentages of residents ages 65 and older in the United States, but very few of them have thought ahead to a time when they will no longer be able to drive a vehicle safely or considered how they will get around without a car, according to a new survey developed by Florida State University and the Florida Department of Transportation.
In fact, 13 percent of survey respondents indicated they would not stop driving at all, with 3 percent expressing the opinion that they would die before they would stop driving.
The findings reflect a serious issue in Florida—and across the nation—that older drivers are at a disproportionate risk for being involved in a fatal vehicular crash, according to John Reynolds, the Eagles Professor of Sociology at Florida State and director of the university's Pepper Institute on Aging and Public Policy. Read more ..
America on Edge
|Daniel Fowler||December 5th 2011|
Levels of health disparity have increased substantially for people born in the United States after 1980, according to new research.
The study also found that health disparity tends to increase as people move into middle age, before declining as people reach old age.
These two results suggest that the gap between the healthiest and least healthy people in the United States as a whole will grow larger for the next one or even two decades as the younger generations grow older and replace previous generations.
"As young people today reach middle age and preceding cohorts with a smaller health gap die off, we expect health disparities in the whole population to grow even larger," said Hui Zheng, lead author of the study and assistant professor of sociology at Ohio State University.
A lot will depend on whether future generations will continue the trend, seen in post-baby boomers, of large health disparities.
"If that trend continues, as I expect it will, health disparities in the whole population will increase in the coming decades," Zheng said. The health gap has not always been growing, according to the study. Health disparities continuously declined from those born early in the 20th century to the baby boomer cohort, before increasing for post-baby boomer cohorts, especially those born after 1980. Read more ..
|Andy Henlon||December 5th 2011|
Imagine a runaway boxcar heading toward five people who can’t escape its path. Now imagine you had the power to reroute the boxcar onto different tracks with only one person along that route.
Would you do it?
That’s the moral dilemma posed by a team of Michigan State University researchers in a first-of-its-kind study published in the research journal Emotion. Research participants were put in a three dimensional setting and given the power to kill one person (in this case, a realistic digital character) to save five.
The results? About 90 percent of the participants pulled a switch to reroute the boxcar, suggesting people are willing to violate a moral rule if it means minimizing harm.
“What we found is that the rule of ‘Thou shalt not kill’ can be overcome by considerations of the greater good,” said Carlos David Navarrete, lead researcher on the project. Read more ..
|Tafline Laylin||December 3rd 2011|
In an unprecedented move, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) has unveiled plans to build as many as 20 zero-emissions schools throughout the Gaza Strip, which will rely entirely on renewables for their energy supply. The agency has teamed up with architect Mario Cucinella to apply the most cutting edge sustainable innovations to the schools that will be completely self-sustaining. Plans for the Gaza schools are currently being displayed at the COP 17 conference in Durban and will render education in the Gaza Strip significantly less vulnerable to the politics du jour. Find out how after the jump.
sustainable development, green design, solar energy, eco-schools, Gaza, UNRWA, environmental education, green building, renewable energy. Read more ..
Southern Africa on Edge
|Peta Thornycroft||December 3rd 2011|
The United Nations says the world is finally ready to achieve the goal of zero new HIV infections, zero discrimination, and zero AIDS-related deaths. There are various challenges and responses to that vision in Zimbabwe and South Africa.
In the past few years, South Africa has come to grips with the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The government is now reporting that new infections in pregnant women have stabilized.
Even so, the country remains plagued by HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
The South African government, non-governmental organizations and the private sector currently treat about one million people infected with HIV or AIDS. Official statistics say another 5 million are infected among the country’s 50 million people. Read more ..
Voice of America
|Mike O'Sullivan||November 30th 2011|
There is a Chinese saying that “women hold up half the sky,” yet in many societies, the contributions of women are ignored and women are often the victims of sexual violence and abuse.
Husband-and-wife journalists Nicholas Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn documented some of those women’s stories in the 2009 book Half the Sky.
The exhibition at the Skirball Cultural Center features stories of women who have taken action to change their lives: Saima Muhammad, a Pakistani woman who built an embroidery business with a $65 dollar micro-loan and gained financial independence from her abusive husband and Goretti Nyabenda, a woman in Burundi, who started a business brewing banana beer to provide for her family. It also shows women who have made a difference on a wider scale, including Edna Adan Ismail, the former first lady of Somalia. She is a former nurse who has campaigned against female genital mutilation and used her life savings to build a maternity hospital in Somaliland.
Their stories are told through photographs, art works, and recorded sights and sounds.
It also shows women who have made a difference on a wider scale, including Edna Adan Ismail, the former first lady of Somalia. She is a former nurse who has campaigned against female genital mutilation and used her life savings to build a maternity hospital in Somaliland.
Their stories are told through photographs, art works, and recorded sights and sounds.
Columnist issues moral challege
In his columns in the New York Times, journalist Nicholas Kristof has described sex trafficking, denial of education and other abuses of women, and he says the exhibit conveys several important themes to visitors. Read more ..
|Greg Flakus||November 30th 2011|
Most people hold on to their jobs for security and whatever benefits they might provide. But some adventurous souls follow a more challenging path, becoming entrepreneurs, working for themselves with no safety net to catch them if they fail. One urban couple chose to move to the country in Waller County, Texas, northwest of Houston, to begin a new life and business, with goats.
Part of the daily routine for Christian Seger at the Blue Heron Farm is milking the goats at feeding time.
Most people hold on to their jobs for security and whatever benefits they might provide. But some adventurous souls follow a more challenging path, becoming entrepreneurs, working for themselves with no safety net to catch them if they fail. One urban couple chose to move to the country in Waller County, Texas, northwest of Houston, to begin a new life and business, with goats. Read more ..
Inside South Korea
|Jason Strother||November 30th 2011|
In a country that wins praise for its education system - U.S. President Barack Obama frequently cites Korea as a model for scholastic performance - the 600 students at a Seoul vocational school aren't receiving a typical Korean high school education, and most won't head to universities once they graduate. "We are now focusing on some practical skills, which the IT field or the mechanics field really require," says Geum Donghoe, a teacher in Sudo’s information technologies department.
Although Korean students are among the highest scorers on international standardized tests, and up to 80 percent of high school graduates enroll in a university, some say there is a downside. Conventional schools, critics say, are too focused on getting students into top universities when there aren't enough jobs for highly educated graduates. Now the South Korean government is promoting alternatives to college, such as the electrical and electronics-engineering curricula at Sudo, much of which, says Donghoe, is on par with graduate-degree coursework. Read more ..
The Way We Are
|Rob Norman||November 28th 2011|
This is part two of Stories On The Skin: The Life and Times of Tattoos, Piercings, and Modifications.
Tattoos had been used in ancient Greece and Rome to mark ownership of slaves and as punishment for criminals. Rather than being ornamental, the tattooing practices signified degradation, punishment, and permanent ownership. In Greek literature, the first reference to tattooing is as stigmatias or “a marked slave.” The word stigma in English is derived from the Greek and indicates discredit or shame.
Apparently the Greeks adapted their tattooing practices from the Persians, and later, the Romans continued the practice of tattooing slaves and the term stigmata. Within the medical text Medicae artis principes, by the sixth-century Roman physician Aetius, is the oldest known description of stigmata. Read more ..
Italy On Edge
|Henry Ridgwell||November 28th 2011|
Italy's tough austerity drive includes plans to force local authorities to merge, in a bid to rein in public spending. The tiny village of Filettino faces such a prospect - but its mayor is fighting back. The town is bidding to become an autonomous principality with its own currency. And it might just stand a chance.
Deep in the rugged mountains east of Rome lies the quiet village of Filettino. Not much has changed here for centuries. But the 554 residents are now part of a revolution in the making; Filettino is trying to break away from Italy. Under the government’s tough $67-billion [50 billion euro] austerity package, all towns with fewer than 1,000 residents are being forced to merge with neighboring communities. That would see Filettino’s Mayor Luca Sellari out of a job. So he’s leading the fight back. Read more ..
|Corbin Hiar||November 28th 2011|
The Clean Air Act “watch list” is secret no more.
Just days after a report that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maintains an internal list that includes serious or chronic violators of air pollution laws that have not been subject to timely enforcement, the EPA has posted the September and October watch list on its website.
The agency also has begun to publish watch lists that include serious or chronic violators of the Clean Water Act, governing the release of pollutants in waterways, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, involving hazardous waste disposal.
The EPA cited a FOIA request for the Clean Air Act watch list, later published for the first time as part of a series on air pollution afflicting hundreds of communities, and said the agency would publish the lists as a demonstration of its commitment to transparency. However, important details on why each polluter is on the list will continue to be kept confidential, the agency said. Read more ..
Panama on Edge
|Courtney Frantz and Gianfranco Banna||November 24th 2011|
Panamanian doctors, medical workers, and teachers ended a month-long strike on November 18 by signing a series of agreements with the Panamanian government about Bill 349, or the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Bill, which appeared to permit the government to privatize healthcare and education. The agreement would send the bill back to a “first reading,” which means, according to The Council on Hemispheric Affairs’ interviews with journalist Eric Jackson of The Panama News, that the bill “dies unless brought up in a future legislative session.”
The Panamanian Society of General Medicine contended that Bill 349 would have “allow[ed]… a relaxation in the duties and obligations of the state, and [would] open… the door for basic services at the mercy of capital and not for the great majority.” Perhaps even more troubling, however, was the structure outlined by the bill for decision-making regarding PPPs, which would have given the president and several of his cabinet members unprecedented authority. This and other ramifications of the bill stand in direct contrast with the laws and regulations about PPPs characteristically found elsewhere in the world that guarantee at least minimal limitations and attempts at transparency. Read more ..
The Way We Are
|Koby Mandell||November 21st 2011|
I was once bullied by a jerk who wanted to show off in front of his friends. He took a chair from me during school when I was sitting down and I fell on the floor. I said to my friends, "That guy's an idiot" and he heard me. He started to hit and kick me and then walked away. I didn't hit him back because he was bigger and older than me.
The book Taking the Bully by the Horns, by Kathy Noll, explains why bullies bully. Now I understand that he bothered me because he felt really small inside and I was an easy target because I was new in the school. People used to make fun of him because of his grades and he probably felt bad about himself and decided to take it out on other people.
A bully picks on somebody so that he can take his anger about feeling bad about himself out on somebody else. He picks somebody smaller than him without too many friends. Somebody he thinks won't tell anybody. Read more ..
|Jim Morris, Chris Hamby, and Elizabeth Lucas||November 18th 2011|
For all of her 62 years, Lois Dorsey has lived five blocks from a mass of petrochemical plants in Baton Rouge. She worries about the health of people in her life: A 15-year-old granddaughter, recovering from bone cancer. A 59-year-old sister, a nonsmoker, felled by lung cancer. Neighbors with asthma and cancer.
She's complained to the government about powerful odors and occasional, window-rattling explosions—to no avail, she says. Pollution from the plants—including benzene and nickel, both human carcinogens, and hydrochloric acid, a lung irritant—continues.
“If anything," said Dorsey, herself a uterine cancer survivor, "it’s gotten worse."
Americans might expect the government to protect them from unsafe air. That hasn’t happened. Insidious forms of toxic air pollution—deemed so harmful to human health that a Democratic Congress and a Republican president sought to bring emissions under control more than two decades ago—persist in hundreds of communities across the United States, an investigation shows. Read more ..
The Way We Are
|Rob Norman||November 18th 2011|
Not one great country can be named, from the polar regions in the north to New Zealand in the south, in which the aborigines do not tattoo themselves.
– Charles Darwin
On a spectacularly sunny, end of March Sunday I attended a "tattoofest" in a Tampa hotel. Outside a group of bikers and other attendees sat soaking up the sun. I entered tentatively, not knowing what to expect.
I picked up a magazine at the check-in tables called "Prick", filled with ads for conventions and tattoo artists’ studios. A columnist, Chuck B, wrote, "Even the meanest looking heavily tattooed characters out there are longing to be coddled, not hurt. Believe me, I know. So let’s all get together and have a big love fest."
I was surprised by what I saw. This was not just displays and sales pitches. People getting their tattoos applied and those doing the applications occupied the majority of booths. Read more ..
|Farangis Najibullah and Tom Balmforth||November 17th 2011|
Zulfiya Bobojonova and her two teenage sons haven't left their rented Moscow apartment for nearly a week. "There are rumors about Russian police detaining Tajiks in the streets and deporting them back to Tajikistan," says the shopkeeper, who hails from a small city in northern Tajikistan but has worked legally in the Russian capital for the past nine years. "Russian television channels talk about Tajik-migrant issues every night, and it's just adding to our fears."
In fact, the reports of migrant sweeps in Russia targeting Tajik nationals are more than rumors. In the week since a Tajik court sentenced a Russian and an Estonian pilot to prison sentences for their unauthorized refueling stops en route from Kabul, Russian officials have rounded up hundreds of Tajik immigrants for possible expulsion.
"Tajiks don't dare go outside or freely walk in streets right now," Bobojonova tells RFE/RL. "Everybody is in hiding inside their homes. I didn't even allow my 13-year-old son to go to school. What if the police detain him, find us too, and deport all of us? People are afraid. Nobody's going to work."
The pilots, working for a Russian air-transport company, were handed jail sentences on November 8 of 10 1/2 years each for arms trafficking, among other charges. Their aircraft were also seized. Read more ..
The Way We Are
|Art Chimes||November 15th 2011|
Happy people may not only enjoy life more, but new research suggests they also have more life to enjoy.
Almost 4,000 people, enrolled in a long-term aging study in Britain, were asked to score how they were feeling on a particular day.
"We used quite simple measures," says Andrew Steptoe of University College London. "So the 'positive affect' measure was a combination of how happy people were feeling, how excited they were feeling, how content they were. And these were all rated on a simple scale, a five-point scale, from 'not at all' to 'extremely.' Read more ..
China on Edge
|Martin Barillas||November 15th 2011|
|Chinese convicts take cigarette break before execution|
“The work is not as difficult as it seems from the outside. We point, squeeze the trigger and that is that,” reportedly said one of China’s executioners in reference to his deathly work. He added, “We all use rifles and stand about 15 feet away from the condemned prisoner from whom we are separated by 3 foot tall barrier.” Chinese media recorded an interview with an executioner named Hu Xiao, who has participated in the official killings for some two decades. In the Beijing Evening News it was also recorded that prisoners, kneeling before their executioners, frequently collapse in fright before sentence is carried out.
Executioner Hu recalled that in one case, a soldier who had been convicted of murder rose up and ran towards the firing squad and afforded them the opportunity to kill a moving target. China is one of 23 countries, including the United States, where capital punishment is still observed. Ninety-six countries have officially abolished the death penalty. China executes more people than any other country in the world. Read more ..
Greece on Edge
|Henry Ridgwell||November 15th 2011|
Images of the riots and strikes in Athens have been broadcast around the world as Europe fights to save Greece from bankruptcy. But Greeks in rural areas of the country say that the meltdown is hitting them even harder - and claim they are being ignored by the government.
West Macedonia in the mountainous north of Greece. Here the cold winds of economic hardship are blowing hard.
The town of Ptolemaida owes its existence to one industry - electricity. Power station chimneys loom on the hillsides. In between, the landscape is scarred with mines which supply the factories with lignite or "brown coal." The electricity company is state-owned. It faces falling revenues and government cutbacks. For the workers, that spells disaster. In the nearby town of Kozani, Lefteris Ionnadis helps run a local activist group, the "Independent Kozani Movement." Read more ..
Edge on Art
|William Foreman||November 14th 2011|
University of Michigan
Scholarly gems are often found by sifting through dusty archives in foreign lands thousands of miles away. But sometimes they're discovered just by doing some office cleaning on campus.
That's what happened recently at the Center for Chinese Studies at the University of Michigan. Staffers who were tidying up a storage room in Ann Arbor found a stunning collection of rare propaganda papercut images from the Cultural Revolution---a period of massive political upheaval in China that began in 1966 and lasted about a decade.
"Long live the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution!" says the slogan on the flag that features the profile of the late Chinese leader Mao Zedong. The image is one of 15 papercuts recently discovered in a storage area for the Center for Chinese Studies, which is celebrating its 50th anniversary.
With incredible detail, the long-forgotten papercuts portray the euphoria and zeal of the era as well as the violence and destruction that left the Chinese economy in shambles. The beautifully preserved poster-size images are painstakingly cut out of red paper in the tradition of the age-old Chinese handicraft, more commonly used to make decorations for weddings, Lunar New Year celebrations and other festivities. Read more ..
The Medical Edge
|Lisa Lyons||November 13th 2011|
We all know that human skin tans after days spent in the sun. That relatively slow process has known links to ultraviolet (and specifically UVB) exposure, which leads to tanning only after it damages the DNA of skin cells. Now, researchers have uncovered a much speedier path to pigmentation.
The newly discovered response is likely to provide rapid protection against UV damage, the researchers say, and understanding how it works might impact the design of sunscreens in the future.
"Our work shows that a dedicated UV receptor allows skin cells to immediately detect and respond to UV light," said Elena Oancea of Brown University. "We found that human skin detects light using a mechanism similar to that used by the retina, on a timescale significantly faster than was previously known."
"Our findings show that both the eye and skin—the only two organs constantly exposed to solar radiation—use similar molecular mechanisms to decode light," Oancea said.
The studies show that melanin production can be measured in human skin cells within an hour of UV exposure. That's key because melanin doesn't just make the skin darker. It also protects the skin by absorbing ultraviolet radiation and converting it to a less harmful energy in the form of heat. Read more ..
Among the Druze
|Abigail Klein Leichman||November 11th 2011|
|A View of the Streets in Daliat el-Carmel|
Most people go to the Galilee Druze village of Daliat el-Carmel to sample ethnic cuisine or bring home bargains from the bazaar. But the town, located between the bucolic wine country in Zichron Yaakov and the high-tech hub of Haifa, is also rich in history that Ragaa Mansour is eager to share.
"This is the southernmost Druze town in the world and the largest in Israel," says Mansour, a member of the Druze sect that is based mainly in Lebanon and Syria.
Two years ago, Mansour opened the Carmel Center for Druze Heritage, a hands-on living museum dedicated to educating visitors about the Druze people, religion and culture through exhibits on dress, foods, crafts and industries. Read more ..
Edge of Terrorism
|Martin Barillas||November 8th 2011|
Cutting Edge Senior Correspondent
The Boko Haram
Islamic sect launched a series of deadly attacks in northeastern Nigeria on November 4, destroying several Christian churches as well as law enforcement installations. Six churches were destryed
in the city of Damataru
, the capital of Yobe
State, while in nearby Maiduri
another four attacks were reported. On November 4, in Damataru
, a series of coordinated attacks with the use of explosives targeted the police headquarters, police stations and six different churches in the Christian neighbourhood
According to provisional official estimates, the attacks yielded at least 60 dead, as well as numerous wounded. In Maiduguri, there were three suicide bombings against army barracks, government installations, and Christian churches. In Maiduguri, among the victims was Rev. David Usman, the pastor of a Church of Christ congregation, as well as his assistant secretary. A Catholic church was utterly destroyed in the attack. Yet another church was attacked in Kaduna, a town in central Nigeria. Read more ..
Islam Against Christianity
|Martin Barillas||November 8th 2011|
Cutting Edge Senior Correspondent
|Egyptian Coptic Christians mourning|
Following an annual meeting on October 27-28, the North American Orthodox-Catholic Theological Consultation released a statement after having received reports on events in the lives of Catholic and Orthodox Churches worldwide. Chaired by Catholic Archbishop Gregory Aymond of New Orleans at St. Paul’s College in Washington D.C., the Consultation's Orthodox co-chairman since 1987, Metropolitan Maximos of Pittsburgh, has retired and a successor has not yet been named.
The statement, On the Plight of Churches in the Middle East, declared “We are concerned for our fellow Christians who, in the face of daunting challenges, struggle to maintain a necessary witness to Christ in their homelands,” they wrote. “United with them in prayer and solidarity, we ask our fellow Christians living in the West to take time to develop a more realistic appreciation of their predicament. We ask our political leaders to exert more pressure where it can protect these Churches, many of which have survived centuries of hardship but now stand on the verge of disappearing completely.” Read more ..
Israel and Africa
|Karin Kloosterman||November 2nd 2011|
|Rebels inspecting their guns|
Ex-freedom fighters from Nigeria are being sent to an Israeli institute to learn vital skills for self-sufficiency.
After fighting big oil, ex-rebels from the Niger Delta of Nigeria have chosen to put down their weapons. Some 20,000 of them, men and women, have been granted amnesty by their government along with free land for developing agriculture.
But people who have long known only conflict and guns don't remember how to till the soil, raise chickens or milk cows. This is where an Israel management non-profit has stepped in. Read more ..
|Jared Wadley||November 1st 2011|
Preschoolers are aware and understand threats when they see their mother harmed by violent conflicts at home, a new University of Michigan study finds.
The study explored what factors influence children's comprehension and response when violence occurs.
Researchers evaluated intimate partner violence—conflicts that can be physical or sexual—in the past year for 116 mother-child groups with known violence in the homes. The children were 4 to 6 years old.
Few studies have looked at children's observations of violence as young as age 5, and the new U-M findings are one of the first to assess outcomes for kids as young as age 4, said Laura Miller, a psychology graduate student and the study's lead author.
Mothers and children were interviewed to assess the level of violence at home and their mental health. Children also discussed violent conflict between their mother and another adult.
Results suggest that preschool-aged children are able to meaningfully respond to statements about their parents' conflicts. Girls, more than boys, tend to blame themselves for violence in the home. Read more ..
The Race for Smart Grid
|Paul Buckley||October 31st 2011|
Leading European energy and ICT companies, R&D centers and universities, including ESB, Intune Networks and the Telecommunications Software & Systems Group (TSSG) are teaming up as part of a €5million for EU Collaboration to develop innovative “smart grid” energy solutions and services for homes, buildings, industry and the transport infrastructure.
The project aims to identify the requirements of a “smart grid” ICT system. Smart grids provide a balance between the supply of energy generated and demand. They can integrate advanced information and communication technology (ICT) into the energy distribution network so that electricity delivery is remotely controlled and automatically optimized. Read more ..
Honduras on Edge
|Olga Imbaquingo & Gabriela Acosta||October 31st 2011|
Council on Hemispheric Affairs
As always, but with an unusual quota of aggression since 2010, freedom of speech and the personal security of Honduran journalists are under permanent attack from groups, gangs, and individuals who launch their strikes under a cloak of anonymity. The journalist Medardo Flores, a relentless supporter of former President Manuel Zelaya, is the latest victim of the wave of violence directed toward members of the Honduran working press. With all the disrespect attributable to the government of Porfirio Lobo, as demonstrated here, it is not unreasonable to presume that the perpetrators, along with their underlying political motives, want to silence such journalists at any cost.
“President Lobo, who is killing the journalists?” is the question that is being raised by various national and international bodies, though they are only answered with silence and impunity. This prolonged state of deeply disturbing uncertainty has all but eliminated freedom of expression and investigative journalism in the country, two concepts that Hondurans badly need to protect their fragile, budding democracy and extremely delicate human rights situation. The dark forces behind this wave of menacing injustice comprise a broad collection of foreboding tactics ranging from common violence to political violence to the activities of drug cartels, which have silenced journalists reporting on the subject of corruption and other crimes related to narco-trafficking out of fear of losing their lives. Read more ..
|Terrence Sterling||October 30th 2011|
An extraordinary conference designed to recognize and promote â€œmoral courageâ€ convened in San Diego late in October. The Initiative for Moral Courage held its first annual conference on the campuses of San Diego State University and California State University at San Marcos. The conference topics of the inaugural session focused on various twentieth century genocides, authors who have exposed them, and individuals who stood up to them against the odds. Hence, the salute to moral courage, and the awards given to carefully selected recipients.
To salute brave survivors and chroniclers, this yearâ€™s conference featured presentations by award-winning author and investigative journalist Edwin Black on the connection between American and Nazi eugenics and Richard G. Hovannisian on the Armenian genocide orchestrated by the Turks. It also covered a host of other mass murders, from Bosnia-Herzegovina to Rwanda to Cambodia.
The first major event was on October 29 and included a graphic presentation of panels titled â€œThe Rescuers.â€ This was an exhibition of photographs and extraordinary stories from the Holocaust, and the genocides that occurred in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Rwanda, and Cambodia. Remarkable stories emerged of ordinary heroes who resisted overwhelming tides of prejudice and violence and risked their lives saving people from enemy groups. It helps to understand the presence of rescue behavior during genocide or mass violence. The exhibitionâ€™s rationale was to design ways to build in protective measures against this type of violence
Then, on October 30, an afternoon series explored â€œGenocides Past and Present.â€ Opening the day was award-winning investigative author Edwin Black, whose book War Against the Weak has changed the face and course of societyâ€™s understanding of the dark links between American and Nazi eugenics. Based on selective breeding of humans, eugenics began in laboratories in the U.S. but ended in the concentration camps of Nazi Germany. War Against the Weak is described by the program as â€œthe gripping chronicle documenting how American corporate philanthropies launched a national campaign of ethnic cleansing in the United States, and helped found and fund the Nazi eugenics of Hitler and Mengele. Winner of the Best Book of the Year, International Human Rights.â€ Black demonstrated moral courage in standing up to the power of the Carnegie Institution and Rockefeller Foundation, which funded, orchestrated, and inflicted both American and Nazi eugenics.
Author Black commented, â€œIn an era of increasing focus on political expediency, the effort to revive and foster the notion of moral courage is sorely needed.â€ He credited the vision of organizer Jackie Gmach in bringing the effort to national attention. Read more ..
Edge on Human Population
|Leane Regan||October 29th 2011|
As the global media speculate on the number of people likely to inhabit the planet on Oct. 31, an international team of population and development experts argue that it is not simply the number of people that matters but more so their distribution by age, education, health status and location that is most relevant to local and global sustainability.
Any realistic attempt to achieve sustainable development must focus primarily on the human wellbeing and be founded on an understanding of the inherent differences in people in terms of their differential impact on the environment and their vulnerabilities. These vulnerabilities are often closely associated with age, gender, lack of education, and poverty.
These are some of the messages formulated by twenty of the world's leading experts in population, development and environment who met at IIASA in Austria in September 2011, with the objective of defining the critical elements of the interactions between the human population and sustainable development. The Laxenburg Read more ..
|Ashley Milne-Tyte||October 27th 2011|
Voice of America
In today’s uncertain economic times, understanding money matters is more important than ever. But America’s education system is not doing a good job of teaching financial literacy. Past surveys show high school seniors answer only around half of basic questions about stocks, bonds and credit cards correctly.
The inventors of a board game called Ne$t Egg hope their approach can get high school students off on the right financial foot.
Most of the 13 New York City high school kids who recently gathered around a table to play Ne$t Egg had never thought about personal finance before. They were in an office at the City’s Department of Youth and Community Development, dice at the ready. Read more ..
|Diane Swanbrow||October 27th 2011|
They've been stereotyped as a bunch of insecure, angst-ridden, underachievers. But most members of Generation X are leading active, balanced and happy lives, according to a long-term University of Michigan survey.
"They are not bowling alone," said political scientist Jon Miller, author of The Generation X Report. "They are active in their communities, mainly satisfied with their jobs, and able to balance work, family, and leisure."
Miller directs the Longitudinal Study of American Youth at the U-M Institute for Social Research. The study, funded by the National Science Foundation since 1986, now includes responses from approximately 4,000 Gen Xers—those born between 1961 and 1981.
"The 84 million Americans in this generation between the ages of 30 and 50 are the parents of today's school-aged children," Miller said. "And over the next two or three decades, members of Generation X will lead the nation in the White House and Congress. So it's important to understand their values, history, current challenges and future goals." Read more ..
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