Inside Latin America
|Andrea Cornejo||August 6th 2010|
Council on Hemispheric Affairs
On July 28th, the 189th anniversary of Peru’s independence from Spain, Peruvians both at home and abroad could not help but feel a heightened sense of pride over their country’s prosperity. Peru has been identified as possessing the fastest-growing Latin American economy in 2010 and has achieved a commendable reduction in poverty and inequality, with its income per capita Gini coefficient decreasing from 0.54 in 1997 to 0.49 in 2006. Despite the global economic meltdown and domestic social and political instability affecting the country, these improvements in poverty and inequality signal a promising future. However, as the country continues to implement neo-liberal policies that have contributed to a 9.8 percent GDP increase in 2008, Peru must continue to guarantee its independence against economic opportunism through effective use of existing bilateral free trade agreements. These agreements should be seen not so much as ends in themselves, but rather as tools for promoting economic prosperity and higher living standards. Read more ..
A Toxic Edge
|Murali Krishnan and Shantanu Guha Ray ||August 2nd 2010|
Center for Public Integrity
Every day, the swirling waters of the Arabian Sea bring misery to Alang, the world’s largest ship-breaking yard in western India’s Gujarat state. An estimated 55,000 workers, unmindful of the lethal effects of asbestos-laden material in the vessels, slave for long hours and, in the process, are exposed to deadly fibers. The Indian government is aware of the risks but loath to interfere: The men need jobs, and the Indian economy, among the world’s fastest-growing, needs secondary steel from the beached vessels. “Reclamation and recycling,” says Pravin Nagarsheth, president of the Iron Steel Scrap and Ship Breakers Association of India (ISSAI), “is a highly lucrative business.”
One hundred-twenty miles (two hundred kilometers) north of Alang, workers at hundreds of dusty asbestos factories in the city of Ahmedabad face similar hazards in the name of economic development: lung cancer, asbestosis, and a rapacious malignancy, usually found in the chest cavity, called mesothelioma. In this case the end product is asbestos sheet, widely used in construction. Read more ..
The Edge of Justice
|Nick Schwellenbach and Carol D. Leonnig||July 26th 2010|
Center for Public Integrity
Eight years ago, President George W. Bush issued a stern policy on sex trafficking in war zones—a policy that remains on the books to this day. With government contractors in Iraq and Afghanistan sometimes exceeding the number of U.S. troops, Bush vowed to prosecute employees and suspend or disqualify companies engaging in the trafficking of women.
But officials say these cases have proven difficult to pursue. The State Department reported recently that allegations of contractor employees procuring commercial sex acts were “well publicized,” but no contractors have been prosecuted and no contracts terminated.
lawmakers believe law enforcement is not doing enough. “Zero prosecutions,” said attorney Martina Vandenberg, a former Human Rights Watch investigator, “suggests zero effort to enforce the law.” Read more ..
Edge on Disability
|Edwin Black and Andrew J. Imparato, AAPD President & CEO |
The American Association of People with Disabilities (AAPD), on July 21, 2010, bestowed its coveted Justice for All Awards last week on five Americans who have distinguished themselves for their efforts on behalf of the disabled. The five were Representatives Patrick Kennedy (D-RI); Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA); former Senator and Governor of Connecticut and American with Disabilities Act author Lowell Weicker; President and CEO of Bayer Corporation and Bayer Material Science Greg Babe; and best-selling author Edwin Black, for his investigative book War Against the Weak, now a major documentary film.
The presentation of the award statuettes was made in a Congressional Cannon House Caucus Room packed with senators and members of Congress, as well as corporate executives and the leaders of dozens of associations active in the extended disabled community. Also honored were an enthusiastic group of disabled youthful interns, each of which was servicing a national agency or organization with distinction. Certificates of merit were handed to each in a celebrated call to the podium. United States Attorney General Eric Holder gave the keynote address for the invitation-only event.
In addition to the award recipients and Attorney General Holder, a gamut of Washington luminaries were also in attendance. Former U.S. House Majority Whip and current AAPD board chair Tony Coelho and Dick Thornburgh, former Pennsylvania Governor and U.S. Attorney General when the ADA was passed, were on hand to help celebrate the landmark legislationâ€™s 20th anniversary. Sen. Tom Harkin (D-IA) was scheduled to attend but was delayed. Read more ..
|Scott Stearns||July 19th 2010|
Senegalese basketball legend Anne Marie Dioh is helping to train the next generation of women basketball players in her country. Dioh is making a difference through her after-school program that also encourages young people to stay in school.
Anne Marie Dioh captained Senegal's women's basketball team to two African championships in the early 1990s. The retired shooting guard now helps girls learn the game she loves in a country where women's athletics are overshadowed by men's teams.
Dioh says that everything she knows about sports and basketball she must pass on to young people. And that is what pushed her to create this school.
Players from across Dakar come to Dioh's after-school program three times a week for basketball and the structure of organized athletics. Dioh says that helps her draw in the children, so they can stay in school, learn and play basketball.
Renata Maniaci is a Fulbright scholar from the United States who has spent the last year studying women's basketball in Senegal. Read more ..
Edge on Education
|Mike O'Sullivan||July 19th 2010|
Former sports star Brian Taylor has taken a message of hard work that he learned on the basketball court to the inner city classroom. In this week's installment of Making a Difference we introduce you to Taylor, who was a top basketball player at Princeton University, and he later played professionally. He is now an administrator with a group of rigorous schools for minority students in Los Angeles.
Brian Taylor tells his students that athletics and study are two sides of the same coin. He says he learned playing basketball at Princeton University that both take hard work and perseverance.
Taylor was Ivy League Rookie of the Year in 1971 and Rookie of the Year for the American Basketball Association two years later. He helped lead the ABA's New York Nets to two league championships, and later played for the San Diego Clippers and the Kansas City Kings, and the Denver Nuggets of the National Basketball Association.
After 10 years in professional sports, he returned to Princeton to finish his degree, a move, he says, that later influenced a career decision. Read more ..
Deaf on the Edge
My name is Aidan Mack, and I survived harmful advice given by an audiologist. Since I am not a California citizen, I know that I do not have a direct say in the matter of AB 2072, but I feel it is important for you to be know about the horrible price that many Deaf people like me have had to pay due to an audiologist’s bad advice in early childhood—advice which harmed our potential for becoming fully successful and productive human beings. Many of us are still struggling in adulthood with the consequences of an overemphasis on speech training and of being prohibited from using visual language as children. It was visual language that we needed the most, in order to have full and equal access to the information needed for an effective education, yet we were barred from having access to it.
When my mom found out that I was deaf, she took me to an audiologist who was referred to her by a physician. My mom told the audiologist that she remembered as a little girl how her uncle was Deaf and used sign language. The audiologist immediately told my mom, “No, it is bad idea for Aidan to learn to sign. She needs to learn to listen and to speak or she will not function in the world.” Read more ..
China on the Edge
|Peter Simpson||July 5th 2010|
Voice of America
Police officers patrol a street in Kashgar, in western China's Xinjiang region, . Teams of police patrolled streets in the western region of Xinjiang as stringent security was imposed for the one-year anniversary of China's worst ethnic violence in decade, 3 Jul 2010
Teams of paramilitary police are on full alert in the western region of Xinjiang for the one-year anniversary of China's worst ethnic violence in decades. Security was also tightened in other Chinese cities.
Paramilitary police carrying riot shields and machine guns are patrolling the cities in China's restive Xinjiang province Monday. Read more ..
Mendoza Against the Deaf
|Martin Barillas||June 28th 2010|
Cutting Edge senior contributor
Deaf advocates celebrated a qualified victory last week when they succeeded in amending controversial California legislation AB2072 proposed by that state’s Assemblyman Tony Mendoza. The legislation has been dubbed “Mendoza Eugenics” by critics who accuse it of seeking to subtract the generation-to-generation deaf community by steering parents of deaf newborns to controversial cochlear implants, and nudge the state back to its dark eugenic legacy. The deaf have openly charged Mendoza’s office with exhibiting a denigrating attitude toward them.
After vigorous protests by a coalition of deaf academics and activists, members of the Health Committee backed off the original bill. Safeguard amendments were added to allow the deaf community to have decisive input into the “informational brochures” and other methods by which the state will approach the parents of deaf newborns with alternatives. The drawback in the minds of the deaf community is that the fractured process is still in the hands of audiologists who are "medical equipment technicians," not qualified to make surgical recommendations and are antithetical to American Sign Language which is the culture incarnation that identifies the generation-to-generation deaf.
As part of their sense of qualified victory was the necessity of enduring public taunts, insults and cruel slurs about their deafness from bloggers who support Mendoza’s AB2072. In today’s society, bloggers can publish venomous remarks against any ethnic or cultural group and generally do so with anonymity, hiding behind fake names and pseudonyms. Among the most virulent of taunts appeared on an Orange County California political blog operated by local political observer Art Pedroza. His blog created a special section with a picture of a passive Adolf Hitler intently listening to a household radio. Pedroza headlined the thread by referring to the American Sign Language deaf opponents to AB2072 as “ASL cultists” and “ASL loons.” The thread went on to cruelly portray the deaf with epithets and as “crazy.” Read more ..
Bolivia on the Edge
|Katherine Charin||June 28th 2010|
Council on Hemispheric Affairs
|Bolivian President Evo Morales Ayma|
Evo Morales Ayma, Bolivia’s first indigenous president, has many promises and expectations to fulfill as viewed by his fellow indigenous. During his two terms in office, he has created many new opportunities for Bolivia’s native people, by enforcing the government’s new constitution and promoting social and political equality. One of his most momentous undertakings has been his stance on climate change and environmental responsibility. Morales’ ascent to power is historically significant to Bolivia, a country with an explosive history of social and ethnic inequality. His party, the Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS) represents a myriad of social groups and interests and has enjoyed a strong support group among poor, rural, indigenous Bolivians. Morales has offered hope to indigenous communities in his nation, but some skepticism exists over whether he has been true to his roots or if his newfound political power has worn away at his connection to his people. Read more ..
|Phil Mercer||June 28th 2010|
A legislator in Australia is calling for new laws banning the burqa in public places in the country's most populous state, New South Wales. Reverend Fred Nile has introduced a private members bill to state parliament that would make it an offense to wear a full-face veil in shopping centers and on buses.
Reverend Fred Nile, a Christian Democratic Party MP in the New South Wales upper of house of parliament, insists the burqa does not fit Australian values.
Only a small number of Muslims in Australia wear the loose garment that covers a woman from head to foot, including the face.
But Reverend Nile believes Australia should follow the example of European governments, including France, that have outlawed the burqa.
The controversial bill has been introduced to the New South Wales state parliament and while Reverend Nile denies his planned legislation is racist, he says it will help oppressed Muslim women and increase national security. Read more ..
Edge on Latrin America
|Abigail Griffith||June 21st 2010|
Council on Hemispheric Affairs
|Kayapo Tribesmen in Brazil|
Over the last twenty years, almost all applicable Latin American countries have been moving toward full recognition of their multiethnic citizenship. Peru codified indigenous rights in 1993, Ecuador legalized them in 1998, and Bolivia passed a new constitution including embedded indigenous rights in 2009. However, despite a favorable movement in the direction of increased equality for indigenous peoples, an opposing trend of violence and discrimination has persisted between the state and indigenous populations in these three countries.
Last year in Bagua, Peru, for example, a violent clash occurred between indigenous protesters and the national police, resulting in thirty-four deaths and one hundred wounded. In Ecuador, an indigenous group recently prosecuted a man for murder, punishing him with public humiliation and beatings, a sentence many Europeanized Ecuadorians saw as barbaric. Read more ..
Argentina on the Edge
|Azul Mertnoff||June 14th 2010|
Council on Hemispheric Affairs
|President Cristina Fernández|
Since its independence from Spain, Argentina has experienced two British invasions, a series of illegitimate governments, the Peronist movement, a dictatorship that cost 30,000 lives, the Falklands War and a neo-liberal economy during the 1990s followed by a major economic default. Today, as Argentina celebrates its bicentennial anniversary, the political debates in the country are not very different from those faced by its founding fathers. The country still suffers from conflicts between the oligarchy and the poor (many near starvation) which have thwarted President Cristina Fernández’s left-wing political project. It will be interesting to see if Cristina Fernández’s increased popularity following the incredible bicentennial celebrations will help her husband, former president Néstor Kirchner, win a second term in the presidential election next year. Read more ..
Africa on the Edge
|Martin Barillas||June 7th 2010|
Cutting Edge Senior Contributor
A court case, alleging that HIV-positive women were forcibly sterilized in Namibian State Hospitals will begin in Windhoek's High Court this June. Human rights groups claim the practice has continued long after the authorities were notified.
The Windhoek-based Legal Assistance Centre (LAC) is litigating 15 alleged cases of forced sterilization. Three women's cases will be heard initially. Each woman is demanding the equivalent of $132,000 in damages. The sterilizations were first uncovered by the International Community of Women Living with HIV (ICW). The first cases emerged during community meetings in early 2008.
"In the months that followed, we interviewed 230 women, 40 of whom were sterilized against their will," says the ICW's Veronica Kalambi. Kalambi also said, "In August 2008 we formally alerted the ministry during a meeting with the deputy minister.”
Although the Namibian government argues that consent forms were signed in all three cases, the women's lawyers maintain the process necessary for “informed consent” was not followed and the women were coerced, or did not understand the procedure. Read more ..
Child Rearing on the Edge
|Jared Wadley||May 31st 2010|
Discipline—whether it's spanking, yelling or giving time-outs—may sometimes do little to reduce children's behavior problems, a new study indicates.
Researchers at the University of Michigan and five other universities looked at practices and perceptions of discipline in six countries. They found that spanking leads to more child aggression and anxiety, regardless of the country.
So what should parents do to teach children right from wrong?
"It may be that the long-term investments that we make in children, like spending time with them, showing that we love them and listening to them, have a more powerful positive effect on behavior than any form of discipline," said Andrew Grogan-Kaylor, U-M associate professor of social work.
The study examined the associations of mothers' discipline techniques with children's aggressive and anxious behaviors in China, India, Italy, Kenya, Thailand and the Philippines. Read more ..
Turkey on the Edge
|Soner Cagaptay and Cansin Ersoz||May 24th 2010|
The Washington Institute
Since the Justice and Development Party, or AKP, rose to power in Turkey in 2002, special taxes on alcohol have increased dramatically, making a glass of wine or beer one of the most expensive in Europe, and, for that matter, anywhere in the world. The AKP leadership is known for their aversion to alcohol. Yet, the Turkish people are divided on this issue, with some who believe that drinking alcohol is a sin according to Islam, while some believe it is not. While the debate continues, the AKP is implementing policies to make alcohol exorbitantly expensive and therefore out of reach for many Turks.
The issue at stake in Turkey is not whether the government promotes or condemns drinking, nor is it defending one’s ability to get drunk, as would be the case in non-Muslim societies. Rather, given the split religious and cultural attitudes towards drinking in Muslim Turkey, which is also a democracy, the issue at stake is maintaining the notion that citizens in a liberal democracy are free to choose for themselves. Drinking might, therefore, be seen as one of the litmus tests of the AKP’s commitment to liberal democratic values within the context of the Turkey’s majority faith, Islam. Research shows that after eight years of rule by the AKP, drinking has become an expensive luxury in Turkey due to large tax hikes.
For starters, the AKP’s tax hikes against alcoholic beverages do not appear to be connected to a drinking problem in Turkey. In fact, Turkey has traditionally low alcohol consumption rates. According to data provided by the World Health Organization, at the time when the AKP came to power in 2003, Turkey's per capita alcohol consumption rate was 1.4 liters (L) per year. For that same year, this amount was 10.9L in Belgium; and 11.5L and 9.0L in neighboring Cyprus and Greece respectively. Even, Qatar, which implements a rigid version of the Shariat under the Wahhabi school, had higher per capita alcohol consumption rates than Turkey, at 4.4L per capita. Read more ..
The Determined Edge
|Gregg Rickman||May 17th 2010|
Cutting Edge Human Rights Analyst
|Zebulon Simontov Credit: Emilio Morenatti, AP|
Until January 2005, Afghanistan’s “Odd Couple” of Yitzhak Levy and Zebulon Simintov lived separately but together in Kabul—in opposite ends of the same synagogue. Consistently at each other’s throats, their Muslim neighbors testified to their ongoing volatile screaming battles, alternately accusing each other of heinous crimes including that of stealing Afghanistan’s only Torah. Both men laid claim to the scroll, which they described as having been written by hand on deerskin and wrapped in silk, some 500 years old and worth $2 million. Each brought charges against the other and the Taliban jailed and tortured them with cables because of this unbending dispute, confiscating the Torah for added measure. Levy’s death has made Zebulon Simintov Afghanistan’s last Jew—a man who refuses to leave the country. Read more ..
Latin American on the Edge
|Felix Blossier||May 10th 2010|
Council on Hemispheric Affairs
Remittances, the funds sent by foreign-based Latin American workers to their families back home (also called migradollars in Mexico, where they constitute the third highest source of income after oil exports and tourism), represent one of the major economic trends shaping Latin America’s recent development. They are considerably more important than official development assistance (ODA) and equal the foreign direct investment (FDI) volume for the region. In some of the poorest countries of the hemisphere (Haiti, Guyana and Honduras, to name a few) they account for more than 10 percent of the GDP, and, in several Latin American countries, remittances per capita readings are higher than the GDP per capita of the poorest 40 percent of the population.
Despite their prevalence and assumed transcendent importance, the transfer of these funds back to the motherland have not been extensively studied. Indeed, remittances signify a relatively new economic phenomena; they are hard to track and only have been registered by the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) for the past 10 years. The current economic and financial crisis has resulted in the first drop in remittances since those transfers were first tracked and gives us further insight into their impact on the region. It is therefore a felicitous occasion to examine remittances and to see what impact they have on economic development in Latin America. Read more ..
|Martyn Drakard||May 3rd 2010|
Cutting Edge Africa Correspondent
The growth of religious adherence in sub-Saharan Africa from 1900 to the present day is impressive by any standards, and probably makes for the world record. In this huge expanse, between the Sahara and the Cape, and from Somalia to Senegal there were some 11 million Muslims in 1900; now they number 234 million: a more than 20-fold increase. Christians were then 7 million, and now, at 470 million, have grown by almost 70 times. 21 per cent of all Christians world-wide are to be found in this part of Africa, and 15 per cent of all Muslims. The total population of sub-Saharan Africa is presently around 820 million.
But isn’t this the religious fault-line where Christians are under mounting pressure from Muslims to convert, and al-Qaeda finds it easy to penetrate? Aren’t the troubles in northern Nigeria and southern Sudan spats over contrasting beliefs? Do Africans lack tolerance for each other’s religion? Is religion a source of conflict in the huge swathe of central and southern Africa, or a reason for hope? Isn’t it rather a meeting place for Christians and Muslims, and perhaps could even provide a lesson for other parts of the world?
The growth of religious adherence in sub-Saharan Africa from 1900 to the present day is impressive by any standards, and probably makes for the world record. In this huge expanse, between the Sahara and the Cape, and from Somalia to Senegal there were some 11 million Muslims in 1900; now they number 234 million: a more than 20-fold increase. Christians were then 7 million, and now, at 470 million, have grown by almost 70 times. 21 per cent of all Christians world-wide are to be found in this part of Africa, and 15 per cent of all Muslims. The total population of sub-Saharan Africa is presently around 820 million. Read more ..
The Edge of Aging
|Diane Swanbrow||April 26th 2010|
Deborah Lowry has always liked older people.
“They tend to be more comfortable with themselves than younger people are,” she said, “and I’ve always enjoyed hearing about history from someone who’s lived through it.”
A postdoctoral fellow at the University of Michigan Institute for Social Research’s Population Studies Center, Lowry’s other long-time interest is China, where a grey tide is now sweeping the land. More than 100 million Chinese people are 65 and older, and the proportion is expected to increase rapidly, reaching 20 percent of the population by 2025 and more than 30 percent by 2050.
In the future, experts predict with foreboding, one Chinese child may have to care for two parents and four grandparents. Read more ..
|Gregg J. Rickman||April 19th 2010|
Cutting Edge human rights analyst
“We ask young people to carry on our struggle against Nazi ideology,” declared President Obama on June 5, 2009 at Buchenwald. He continued advocating “…for a just, peaceful and tolerant world; a world that has no place for anti-Semitism, racism, xenophobia, and right-wing extremism." On March 16, 2010, thirteen American Jewish communal organizations wrote a letter to Education Secretary Arne Duncan seeking to ensure that struggle continues, through protection for Jewish students on American University campuses under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Under Section 2000d of the Act, “No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color, or national origin, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.” These groups contend that Jews are entitled to protection under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and the Education Department’s Office of Civil Rights policy mandate of 2004 prohibiting discrimination against Jewish students at educational institutions receiving federal funds.
Secretary Duncan’s Education Department however, views the issue as providing protection to adherents of a religion, therefore making it essentially permissible for discrimination to take place against Jewish students. While perhaps not their intention, their refusal thus far to act to protect Jewish students is for all intents and purposes legalizing anti-Semitic discrimination against Jewish students on American campuses. This failure to act runs counter to President Obama’s stated intent at Buchenwald, the public good, common sense, and simple decency. Read more ..
Latin America on the Edge
|Martin Barillas||April 12th 2010|
Cutting Edge senior correspondent
In 2009, some 847 women were murdered in the Central American republic of Guatemala. Over the last 10 years, some 5,000 have been similarly killed. So far in 2010, the death toll for women now stands at 160. These are not cases of domestic violence: the victims are women who were tortured and killed in public places. In nearly all the cases, no perpetrators have been identified.
Since 2008, Guatemala has “feminicide” on its law books: the murder of women simply because of their sex or out of hatred for their sex. According to Walda Barrios-Klee, a Guatemalan activist, “We consider feminicides to be impersonal crimes. Those who kill a woman have no relationship to her. It is an anonymous crime. The one who kills does not know the victim and kills her because of the fact that she is a woman. This is what is new about the phenomenon,” said Barrios-Klee.
Another distinction of these murders is in the brutality employed before and after the death of the victims. “There is not only a killing; there is a ritual to the murder: torture, mutilation, and rape. There is always rape, accompanied by overwhelming sadism,” said the activist. Bodies are frequently dismembered; fingernails are torn out and faces disfigured.
Read more ..
|Shantell Kirkendoll||April 5th 2010|
Findings by University of Michigan Cardiovascular Center show need for initiatives such as Project Healthy Schools, which teaches sixth-graders heart-healthy lifestyles. Children who eat school lunches more likely to be overweight Middle school children who regularly eat school lunches are more likely to be overweight or obese, develop poorer eating habits, and have high levels of “bad” cholesterol compared to those who bring lunches from home, according to new University of Michigan Health System research presented at the recent American College of Cardiology’s annual scientific session.
Although previous studies have looked at the nutritional content of school lunches, this is the first study to assess the impact of school lunches on children’s eating behaviors and overall health—a critical issue amid skyrocketing rates of childhood overweight and obesity, which can set the stage for future heart disease and premature death.
A team of U-M Cardiovascular Center researchers collected and analyzed health behavior questionnaires completed by 1,297 sixth graders at Michigan public schools over a period of almost three years. They discovered that children who consume school lunches were more likely to be overweight or obese (38.8 percent vs. 24.4 percent) than those who ate lunches brought from home. Children who ate school meals were more than twice as likely to consume fatty meats (25.8 percent vs. 11.4 percent) and sugary drinks (36 percent vs. 14.5 percent), while also eating fewer fruits and vegetables (16.3 percent vs. 91.2 percent). Read more ..
|Martin Barillas||March 29th 2010|
Cutting Edge senior correspondent
|Christian Burned Alive for not Converting to Islam|
Arshed Masih, a Pakistani Christian of Rawalpindi, died in a Pakistani hospital on March 22 at approximately 7:55 PM local time. He had been assaulted on March 19 in front of a police station in Rawalpindi and set alight by Muslim assailants after he had refused to convert to Islam. His wife Martha was then jailed by police and reportedly raped by officials during her imprisonment. Both were taken later to the Holy Family Hospital of Rawalpindi. Their three children, who range in age from 7 to 12, were forced to watch their parents’ torture. The wife of Arshed Masih continues to be hospitalized. A funeral for Masih is expected on March 24.
The couple’s assailants remain at large even while police say that they are launching an investigation. Christian churches and human rights groups have condemned the assault and have protested outside of the police station where the couple met their fate. Local officials have declared that they are aware of the attacks. No arrests have been made. There are fears that local political authorities will prevent any effective investigation of the murder or any consequences for the culprits.
The incident stems from a dispute between the Masih family and their employer, the prominent Muslim Sheikh Mohammad Sultan. Masih had worked for the Sultan as a driver, while wife Martha was a domestic servant. In January 2010, the Sultan demanded that Masih and his family convert to Mohammadism, threatening them with “dire consequences” should they refuse. When Masih asked to leave, he was threatened with death by the Sultan – a threat that was carried out last week. Read more ..
Uganda on the Edge
|Martyn Drakard||March 22nd 2010|
Cutting Edge Africa correspondent
Barely six months after the riots that ensued after the Kabaka (King) of Uganda’s largest ethnic group, the Baganda, was prevented by government forces from visiting Kayunga, a corner of his kingdom—for fear of public unrest, which ironically erupted in Kampala itself, leaving 17 dead, instead of Kayunga—another stand-off threatens.
On the night of March 16, the massive grass-thatched huts that house the remains of the four past Kabakas in Kasubi, a Kampala suburb, caught fire and burned to the ground.
The Royal Tombs of Kasubi, an international tourism site recognized by UNESCO and placed on the heritage list in 2001, was one of the “must-see” sites for visitors to Uganda, together with the source of the Nile and the magnificent Mountains of the Moon (Ruwenzoris). It was a major spiritual centre for Ugandans. Read more ..
Chile on the Edge
|Pedro DuTour||March 15th 2010|
In Latin American terms, it couldn't have happened to a better country. Chile is struggling with the aftermath of the February 27 early morning earthquake. It was estimated to be the fifth strongest in the last 100 years, with a magnitude of 8.8 on the Richter scale. So far the death toll in Chile has reached 800. The devastation affected the whole country, but especially the central and southern regions.
Half of the victims died in a tsunami that swept across 500 kilometres of the coast shortly after the earthquake. More than 350 died in the coastal town of Constitución. Between the tremors and the tsunami, more than 500,000 houses collapsed. Two million people have been affected, bridges have collapsed, roads have cracked, hospitals have been destroyed. According to Eqecat, an American company specialising in risk estimates, the cost of the damage could be between US$15 and 30 billion, which represents about 10–15 percent of Chile’s GDP.
But this was a calamity with which the most developed Latin American country, with a strong democracy and with solid institutions, can cope with. Despite some looting and violence in cities like Concepción—which was worst hit—Chile will survive. Read more ..
|Abraham H. Foxman||March 15th 2010|
Cutting Edge contributor
The Jewish teaching of Kol Yisrael Areivim Zeh Ba-Zeh (“All Jews are responsible for one another”) comes to mind when one considers the remarkable life and incredible achievements of Arnold Forster.
In a career spanning nearly 60 years with the Anti-Defamation League, Forster was perhaps the very embodiment of this quintessential rabbinic teaching. An attorney who fought against anti-Semitism and extremism and who advocated for civil rights and the State of Israel, Forster, 97, who passed away in March, has left us a towering legacy.
In his many years at ADL, he created an impressive body of writings on anti-Semitism, and an equally impressive record in the courts defending the civil rights of All Americans. He did so with tireless devotion, both in his personal and professional life, to the fight against religious prejudice and discrimination.
Arnold was a force of nature. He was a powerful and mesmerizing public speaker and any time one was in a meeting with him, his was a presence that could not be ignored.
He had a remarkable instinct for finding the right instrument to publicize matters of concern to the Jewish community. Through press conferences and the revelation of documented information, he, together with his longtime colleague then-ADL National Director Benjamin R. Epstein, exposed those American companies that observed the Arab boycott and refused to do business with Israel.
This was a time when there was no anti-boycott legislation, and Arnold understood that public exposure of these companies was the only weapon at our disposal. And he played it to a fare-thee-well. Read more ..
Cambodia on the Edge
|Robert Carmichael||March 8th 2010|
Voice of America correspondent
|Family of Cambodian Child Rape Victim|
Amnesty International says rape and sexual crimes committed mainly against women and children has become a growing problem in Cambodia. To mark the 100th International Women's Day, the human-rights group Amnesty International is releasing a report on the scourge of rape and sexual violence in Cambodia. Amnesty's report, called Breaking the Silence, criticizes what it says is a culture of impunity, corruption, and indifference to victims of sexual violence. The result is justice denied for Cambodian women, and increasingly for Cambodian girls.
During its research, Amnesty interviewed 30 victims of rape, as well as 50 non-government aid workers, police and government officials, and even a number of perpetrators. Brittis Edman, who wrote the report, explains its focus, “What we specifically looked at is the aftermath of rape, what are the obstacles that victims face when they seek justice and when they seek access to services.” Read more ..
Latin America on the Edge
|Alexandra Deprez||March 1st 2010|
Council on Hemispheric Affairs
Typhoon Morakot, the unusually strong tropical storm that hit South East Asia in mid-August 2009, displacing more than 1.5 million people in China alone, is only one of the most recent natural disasters that raise questions about environmental change and its link to migration. This link has increasingly attracted attention over the past few years, in particular since 2007, when the 4th Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Report confirmed that human migration would be one of the most important consequences of anthropogenic climate change. The manifestations of environmental change derived from human activities notably include sea level rise (SLR), intensified drought or rainfall, and the increasing attracted recurrence and strength of natural hazards such as hurricanes. Read more ..
Edge on Mental Health
|Jessica Soulliere||February 22nd 2010|
The University of Michigan Depression Center
is partnering with the Real Warriors Campaign, a successful United States Department of Defense public education initiative designed to combat the stigma associated with seeking care for PTSD, depression, sleep disturbances, and traumatic brain injury. Originally geared toward servicemen and women, the partnership seeks to encourage athletes to also get the care they need, and to use their powerful voices to convey that getting help is a sign of strength.
Players on the football field have expressed similar concerns to real warriors on the battlefield, and have been rapidly learning that real strength comes from seeking help and returning to their team.
“The stigma around seeking care for PTSD, depression, TBI and related issues can be overcome,” says John Greden, M.D., executive director of the U-M Depression Center. “Players and veterans in sports, and soldiers and veterans in the military are learning that they are not alone, that treatment works, that buddies and teammates can help, and that getting help is a sign of real strength. As a center that has developed special programs specifically to help members of the military and athletes overcome these barriers, we are proud to be partnering with the Real Warriors Campaign.” Read more ..
|Samuel M. Edelman||February 15th 2010|
Cutting Edge Contributor
Anti-Israel individuals and groups on college campuses are beginning to show a pattern underlying a shift in the form of their anti-Israel activities which attack the very core of what many consider the most important aspect of the university experience, the free flow of information and opinion. Just in the last week we have seen the following events take place at UC Irvine, UCLA, and York University in Canada, Cambridge and Oxford Universities in Great Britain.
On February 1, at York University in Toronto, 20 Jewish students who had gathered to raise awareness of captured Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit and terrorist acts committed by Hamas were surrounded by about 50 protestors chanting anti-Israel and anti-Semitic slurs. Two of the Jewish students were slapped, one on the arm and one across the face (http://www.jpost.com/JewishWorld/JewishNews/Article.aspx?id=168116).
On February 3, during his lecture at Oxford University, Israel's Deputy Foreign Minister Danny Ayalon was heckled by a Muslim student who shouted, among other things, "Itbah Al-Yahud" - "kill the Jews" (http://www.jpost.com/International/Article.aspx?id=168320).
On February 7, the Israel Society at Cambridge University canceled a talk by Ben-Gurion University of the Negev historian Benny Morris after protesters accused him of "Islamophobia" and "racism" (http://www.jpost.com/JewishWorld/JewishNews/Article.aspx?id=167972).
Read more ..
Edge of Health
|John Chapin||February 8th 2010|
A new national study suggests that preschool-aged children are likely to have a lower risk for obesity if they regularly engage in one or more of three specific household routines: eating dinner as a family, getting adequate sleep and limiting their weekday television viewing time.
In a large sample of the U.S. population, the study showed that 4-year-olds living in homes with all three routines had an almost 40 percent lower prevalence of obesity than did children living in homes that practiced none of these routines.
Other studies have linked obesity to the individual behaviors of excessive TV viewing, a lack of sleep and, to a lesser extent, a low frequency of family meals. But this is the first study to assess the combination of all three routines with obesity prevalence in a national sample of preschoolers.
The researchers suggested that adopting these three household routines could be an attractive obesity-prevention strategy for all families with young children, especially because these routines may benefit children's overall development. However, they also cautioned that this study alone does not confirm whether the routines themselves, or some other factor, protect children from obesity. Read more ..
Inside Saudi Arabia
|David Pollock||February 1st 2010|
What issues are of concern to ordinary Saudis? How does the average citizen view the state of the domestic economy? What are the prevailing public attitudes toward religious extremism? As in most countries, long-term stability in Saudi Arabia is ultimately dependent -- to one degree or another -- on popular acceptance of the current system. Even in the short term, the Saudi government, while far from democratic, is no doubt sensitive to social crosscurrents and diverse reactions to its initiatives. As a result, understanding Saudi public opinion is an important part of gauging the country's likely future direction. Opinion polls, however, are almost unknown in the kingdom, and anecdotal or indirect measures of these very delicate subjects are notoriously unreliable.
To help remedy this analytical deficiency, the following paragraphs present a rare data-based perspective on current political and social issues in Saudi Arabia, as viewed by that kingdom's own citizens. This survey reveals a moderately satisfied public—but one that is also concerned about economic conditions. More surprising, it shows clearly that many Saudis are willing to express concerns about corruption and religious extremism. Most also want new political steps such as local elections—but, again contrary to some Western misconceptions, this dimension of public life is not nearly as high on their agenda as other issues. Read more ..
The Medical Edge
|Jose A. Bufill||January 25th 2010|
On May 9, 1960, the FDA took the momentous step of approving the contraceptive pill for birth control.
The acceptance of the hormonal contraceptive pill has been cited as one of the most important historical events of the 20th century because of its effects on marriage and family life. In this paper, I would like to discuss the medical history of the development of the pill, presenting historical events primarily from the perspective of science and scientists, but also – and necessarily – from the perspective of other personalities outside of science whose contributions to the cause were just as important.
I will focus on the 50 year period from 1910 – the year of the birth of reproductive endocrinology as a scientific discipline – to 1960 – the year in which the first orally active hormonal contraceptive was first approved for sale to the general public in the US.
At the turn of the 20th century, there was growing confidence in the power of the medical sciences to finally understand human physiology and the patho-physiology of diseases. The source of this confidence was due in no small part to advances in the field of endocrinology: the study of hormones and the glands that produce them.
The term "hormone" was coined in 1905 by the British physiologist Ernest Starling, after the Greek word meaning "to incite to activity". In the early 20th century, a variety of chemicals were found to have "hormonal" effects in humans: they were produced in one tissue, entered the bloodstream and incited a specific effect on another distant and unrelated tissue. Insulin, thyroxine,testosterone and cortisone were discovered at this time and were found to have remarkable restorative properties when given to patients with a number of common diseases. Read more ..
|David Schenker||January 18th 2010|
On January 6—Christmas Eve according to the Eastern Orthodox calendar—six Coptic Christians and a policeman were killed in a drive-by shooting while exiting church in Naga Hammadi, Upper Egypt. The attack, which came in retaliation to an alleged rape of a twelve-year-old Muslim girl by a Christian man, was the largest assault on Copts in Egypt since a January 2000 massacre left twenty dead in Sohag. The days since the shooting have been marked by violent clashes and the burning of Christian and Muslim property.
These developments have unfolded against the background of increased political pressure on Islamists—evoking the 1990s, when the killing of Copts by Islamist militants was a routine occurrence and the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood (MB) was banned from political participation. Thus, while Naga Hammadi might be an isolated incident, it could also presage the return of Egypt's Islamists to the bloody sectarian attacks of the 1990s.
Coptic Christians constitute nearly 10 percent of Egypt's population at 8 million strong. Long integrated into Egyptian society, the community was politically marginalized after Gamal Abdul Nasser's 1952 coup. Although Copts have since served in prominent positions such as minister of finance and foreign affairs, they have not held the premiership—which they did twice prior to 1952—or served as minister of defense or interior. And with only six members in the 444-seat parliament (only one of whom was actually elected), they are vastly underrepresented on legislative matters. Read more ..
|Martyn Drakard||January 11th 2010|
Cutting Edge Africa Correspondent
White people no longer stand out, literally, in sub-Saharan Africa, not even in the villages and urban slums where a NGO Land-cruiser, with its White crew, is now a familiar sight. For Albino Africans it’s a different story.
The Whites are visitors, who are there usually for a specific purpose, but they won’t stay forever. An Albino may not find it easy to move out. He or she was born there and from an early age is likely to have encountered discrimination and taunts: at school, at sports and leisure, and later when looking for work.
An Albino child will very likely be rejected by his father. He will accuse the child’s mother of “infidelity”, or tell her that he, the father, is normal; there must be something wrong with the mother, and so will leave her because he doesn’t want “more children like that one”. But Albinos were left to follow their own way, a grim one in a place where the sun is bright and hot, and shines every day of the year. Despite popular misconceptions, they are not mentally-handicapped. They are intelligent and smart. They have to be; they are survivors.
That was until three years ago, when a “trade” in Albino body parts started, especially in the south-west of Lake Victoria, where Albinos are about 1 in 4,000 of the population, as opposed to the 1 in 20,000 of Europe and North America, where they are also less noticeable from their complexion. Read more ..
Cutting Edge Contributor
As we enter the last few weeks of the first decade of the twenty-first century, if we had a better name for this period, we might have a firmer fix on its identity. Modern Americans are decade-focused, packaging our historical memories in easily-labeled ten-year chunks: the Sixties, the Seventies, the Eighties, the Nineties. Yet neither the “oh-ohs” nor the “oughts” has stuck as a label, making this decade’s character elusive. With 2010 fast approaching, branding our trying times can help us understand them better.
Yes, as historians we know that we should not fall into this decade-labeling trap. We know that it leads to oversimplification. But we also know that periodization is a valuable weapon in our historians’ arsenal, helping us make some sense out of the passage of time. And we also know that just because we don’t plunge in and offer our judgments it won’t stop others. Let’s face it. Journalists – and more superficial popularizers -- rush in where historians fear to tread.
At first blush, this period has been marked by catastrophes. The Al Gore-George W. Bush electoral deadlock of 2000 exposed major fault lines in American democracy. In 2001, the dot-com bubble burst and the most lethal attack on American soil since Pearl Harbor murdered nearly 3000 Americans on 9/11. Two years later, in 2003, President Bush led us to war in Iraq. In 2005, Hurricane Katrina devastated New Orleans. Finally, the financial meltdown of 2008 triggered America’s worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. Read more ..
Mexico on the Edge
|Megan McAdams||December 28th 2009|
Council on Hemispheric Relations
On December 3, Mexico City police freed 107 human trafficking victims who were forced to manufacture shopping bags and clothespins under “slave-like” circumstances. Officials reported that the victims exhibited signs of physical and sexual abuse, and were also malnourished, as they had been given only chicken feet and rotten vegetables. Twenty-three individuals were arrested and charged with human trafficking after one of the workers escaped and informed the authorities about the dire situation. Despite that fact that Mexican states have enacted some forms of anti-trafficking legislation, there have been no criminal convictions of traffickers to date. In the coming months, it awaits to be seen if those captured on December 3rd will be convicted. While the discovery of this trafficking ring has made for lurid headlines, doubt regarding whether or not these criminals will be brought to justice illuminates the fact that Mexico still has a long road ahead in eradicating the destructive industry of human trafficking.
Human trafficking is the fastest growing illegal industry in the world and, by 2010, it is predicted to surpass the illicit drug trade, which will make it the world’s largest criminal activity. The United Nations defines human trafficking as “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, […] for the purpose of exploitation.” A common misconception is that an individual must cross international borders to be considered a victim of human trafficking; however, as evidenced by the United Nations’ definition, this is not always the case. Read more ..
|Martyn Drakard||December 21st 2009|
Cutting Edge Africa Correspondent
A little-reported phenomenon is spreading in holiday resort areas of the developing countries, largely unreported by international or local press, and which goes under the benign name of “child sex tourism” (CST). This euphemistic term for a different brand of pedophilia has moved its focus, in the eastern hemisphere, from the tsunami-prone areas of Sri Lanka and points east to the coast of Kenya and Africa.
Pedophiles seek out and travel to those places where they are sure of finding children and young people ready for sexual relationships. Many “child sex tourists” –men and women- are “situational abusers” at home, but they also seek out children as partners with a trip to a foreign country. There they are known by no-one, will never meet the partner again, and the victims are easy prey, with little notion of their rights. Pedophile tourism is fueled by poverty, the Internet, ease of travel and weak law enforcement.
The laws of most developing countries in Africa are unprepared for this. Gambia has recently set up a hotline to inform on cases of sex tourism, and Senegal has a special anti-CST unit within the police force in two of its popular tourist destinations. But in Kenya’s present constitution, which goes back to 1963 independence, prostitution is not illegal even if living on the earnings of prostitution is termed a “misdemeanor.” Read more ..
Sexual Assault on Campus
|Kristin Jones||December 14th 2009|
Center for Public Integrity
Buried in the pages of the 2006 student handbook for Dominican College, a small Catholic institution in the northern suburbs of New York City, were five dense paragraphs about what would happen if a student reported a rape.
The college would investigate. That much is required by law. Evidence would be collected and preserved. And if the alleged rapist were another student, campus disciplinary proceedings would ensue, allowing both sides to speak before a hearing board.
The policy was tested in May 2006, with Megan Wright, 19, a freshman from New Jersey. After drinking heavily with others in a friend’s dorm room, she woke up in pain on a Sunday morning, with blood in her underwear. On Monday, she elbowed through a lunchtime rush of students to the glass office of director of residence life Carlyle Hicks to report that she had been raped by a man — or men — she could not identify.
But Wright found cold comfort in Hicks’ response.
“He didn’t seem to have a clue,” says Wright’s mother Cynthia McGrath, who attended the meeting. Hicks didn’t mention a word about a campus disciplinary process, says McGrath, or even ask if the shy redhead was okay. “Just a lack of concern, like he couldn’t be bothered.” Read more ..
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