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The Edge of Medicine

Outrage over New Prostate Cancer Testing Recommendations

May 26th 2012

Surgeons

After lung cancer, prostate cancer is the most prevalent killer of men in the United States. So when the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended that men stop having a test that can tell if they have prostate cancer, it stirred up controversy in the medical community.

For years, men over the age of 40 were told to get a simple blood test to see if they have prostate cancer. But the rationale behind the new recommendation is that treating the cancer can produced more harm than good. "Close to two-thirds of older men have prostate cancer, and yet the huge majority of them never have a problem from it in their lifetime," says Dr. Virginia Moyer, who heads USPSTF.

The task force reviewed two large studies before concluding that the potentially harmful risks of treating the cancer revealed by the PSA test can outweigh the benefits. While the more common post-treatment side effects include impotence and incontinence, some physicians cite other, potentially more serious risks. "I actually think impotence and incontinence are some of the minor side effects," says Dr. Otis Brawley, chief medical officer and executive vice president of the American Cancer Society. "Some [patients] are actually going to have significant problems like pulmonary emboli, heart attacks."

But many doctors disagree. The American Urological Association posted a statement online expressing outrage over the task force's recommendation, specifically because the PSA test is the only widely available test for prostate cancer. "In the PSA-testing era, which has been over the last 20 years or so, the mortality for prostate cancer has declined by 38 per cent," says Dr. Deepak Kapoor, Chairman and CEO of Integrated Medical Professionals and president of the Large Urology Group Practice Association (LUGPA). Read more ..


The Edge of Health

Hazelnuts Improve Infant Formula

May 26th 2012

Black infant

Human breast milk is the best source of food for infants. University of Georgia researchers have found what may be a new second best-formula made from hazelnut oil. Casimir Akoh, a UGA distinguished research professor of food science and technology in the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, developed a new nutrient based on hazelnut oil that better mimics the structure of mother's milk, which makes it better suited to nourish infants. The results of his study were published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry on May 23. "Human milk is the most valuable source of nutrients for infants," he said, "but it is not always possible to feed infants with human milk, and supplements and formula are needed."

Mothers naturally provide the healthful omega-3 fatty acid DHA, docosahexaenoic acid, and omega-6 fatty acid ARA, arachidonic acid, which are important-for the development of the brain and other organs-to infants during the last three months of pregnancy and through breast-feeding. Akoh's development of fats from hazelnut oil contains DHA and ARA at the same molecular positions found on fats in human milk. "The fatty acid profile of human milk is the gold standard when designing the fat composition of infant formulas," he said. "The unique structure of human milk fat increases digestion and absorption of the fatty acids and improves calcium absorption." Read more ..

The Digital Edge

Popular Russian Search Engine Outstrips State-TV Audience

May 26th 2012

Computer User

Yandex, Russia's biggest search engine, drew a record 19 million visitors each day last month, outstripping the country's most popular state-run television channel for the first time. A study released by research firm TNS suggests that the Internet is emerging as an increasingly popular source of information in a news market dominated by state-run television. According to the study, as many as 19.1 million people consulted Yandex in April compared with 18.2 million for the state-controlled Channel One television station.

The study comes as Russia witnesses a wave of anti-Kremlin protests that have been largely played down by state television, but which have received widespread coverage on the Internet. However, according to media analyst Aleksei Pankin, Yandex's success could simply be down to the spectacular rise of the Russian Internet, known in Russia as Runet. "The main reason is very rapid Internet penetration," he said. "Both broadband and mobile Internet is expanding very fast in Russia." "Very fast" means a 25-percent annual growth -- one of the fastest Internet growth rates in the world. Read more ..

The Digital Edge

Phablets Hybrid Communication Devices to Surpass 208 Million Unit Shipments Annually in 2015

May 25th 2012

Smart phone

More than 208 million phablets, a hybrid device that is larger than a smartphone but smaller than a tablet, like the Samsung Galaxy Note, will be shipped globally in 2015, says ABI Research. Despite the slow start for phablet smartphones in 2011, the market is at the dawn of the phablet era. HTC, LG, and Huawei will each introduce phablet smartphones in 2012, joining the ranks of Samsung's Galaxy Note and Nexus. Additionally, another phablet smartphone was released earlier this month, the Samsung Galaxy S3.

“One of the chief drivers for phablets is the amount of time people use their smartphones for web browsing, reading articles and newspapers on the go, or simply navigating their journeys,” says senior analyst Joshua Flood. “The larger screen sizes make a significant difference to the user’s experience when compared to conventional-sized touchscreens between 3.5 to 4 inches.” Additionally, new phablet-styled devices provide an attractive two-in-one device proposition and are beginning to see the competition between these larger smartphone form factors and smaller media tablets (less than seven inches). Phablets are defined as having a touch screen size between 4.6 to 5.5 inches. Global shipments for phablets will increase by a factor of 10 in 2012 from 2011. Read more ..


The Edge on Space

Is the Earth a Cosmic Feather-Duster?

May 25th 2012

NCG 6604 and environs

Scientists at the University of Leeds are looking to discover how dust particles in the solar system interact with the Earth's atmosphere. Currently, estimates of the Earth's intake of space dust vary from around five tons to as much as 300 tons every day. A €2.5 million international project, led by Professor John Plane from the University's School of Chemistry, will seek to address this discrepancy.

The Cosmic Dust in the Terrestrial Atmosphere (CODITA) project will investigate what happens to the dust from its origin in the outer solar system all the way to the earth's surface. The work, funded by the European Research Council, will also explore whether cosmic dust has a role in the Earth's climate and how it interacts with the ozone layer in the stratosphere.

"People tend to think space is completely empty, but if all the dust between the Sun and Jupiter was compressed it would create a moon 16 miles across. It's surprising that we aren't more certain how much of this comes to Earth" said Professor Plane. "If the dust input is around 300 tons per day, then the particles are being transported down through the atmosphere considerably faster than generally believed; if the 5-ton figure is correct, we will need to revise substantially our understanding of how dust evolves in the Solar System and is transported from the edge of space around 50 miles high to the surface," added Professor Plane. Read more ..


The Edge of Food

Like Curry? New Biological Role Identified for Compound Used in Ancient Medicine

May 25th 2012

Indian Spices

Scientists have just identified a new reason why some curry dishes, made with spices humans have used for thousands of years, might be good for you. New research at Oregon State University has discovered that curcumin, a compound found in the cooking spice turmeric, can cause a modest but measurable increase in levels of a protein that's known to be important in the "innate" immune system, helping to prevent infection in humans and other animals.

This cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, or CAMP, is part of what helps our immune system fight off various bacteria, viruses or fungi even though they hadn't been encountered before. Prior to this, it was known that CAMP levels were increased by vitamin D. Discovery of an alternative mechanism to influence or raise CAMP levels is of scientific interest and could open new research avenues in nutrition and pharmacology, scientists said. Turmeric is a flavorful, orange-yellow spice and an important ingredient in many curries, commonly found in Indian, South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine. It has also been used for 2,500 years as a medicinal compound in the Ayurvedic system of medicine in India – not to mention being part of some religious and wedding ceremonies. In India, turmeric is treated with reverence. The newest findings were made by researchers in the Linus Pauling Institute at OSU and published today in the Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, in collaboration with scientists from the University of Copenhagen in Denmark. Read more ..


The Medical Edge

Key Gene Found Responsible for Chronic Inflammation, Accelerated Aging and Cancer

May 24th 2012

walking-cane

 Researchers at NYU School of Medicine have, for the first time, identified a single gene that simultaneously controls inflammation, accelerated aging and cancer.

"This was certainly an unexpected finding," said principal investigator Robert J. Schneider, PhD, the Albert Sabin Professor of Molecular Pathogenesis, associate director for translational research and co-director of the Breast Cancer Program at NYU Langone Medical Center. "It is rather uncommon for one gene to have two very different and very significant functions that tie together control of aging and inflammation. The two, if not regulated properly, can eventually lead to cancer development. It's an exciting scientific find."

For decades, the scientific community has known that inflammation, accelerated aging and cancer are somehow intertwined, but the connection between them has remained largely a mystery, Dr. Schneider said. What was known, due in part to past studies by Schneider and his team, was that a gene called AUF1 controls inflammation by turning off the inflammatory response to stop the onset of septic shock. But this finding, while significant, did not explain a connection to accelerated aging and cancer.

When the researchers deleted the AUF1 gene, accelerated aging occurred, so they continued to focus their research efforts on the gene. Now, more than a decade in the making, the mystery surrounding the connection between inflammation, advanced aging and cancer is finally being unraveled. Read more ..


The Edge of Medicine

Fantastic Voyage to Fight Colon Cancer

May 24th 2012

Voyage Colon Cancer

Only a few years ago it would have belonged to the realm of science fiction: A tiny capsule that travels through the intestines, snapping 360-degree X-ray images and continuously transmitting information to a wrist-worn data receiver reporting on the prevalence of polyps, the precursors of colorectal cancer.

Thanks to the ingenuity of Israel’s Check-Cap, all you’ll have to do is swallow a tiny capsule containing a miniaturized X-ray source and several imaging sensors. No colonoscopy, no hospital visit. “Everyone over 50 should be regularly screened for colon cancer,” CEO Guy Neev states “yet too few people do so because the standard colonoscopy procedure is uncomfortable and invasive. Ingesting the capsule involves no preparation or discomfort, and patients can continue to go about their everyday lives — meaning that they are far more likely to take the test.” Read more ..


Edge of Medicine

Advances in Adult Stem-Cells shows Promise for Bone Therapy

May 24th 2012

Stemcell bone slide

On a special surface that could help advance stem cell therapies, researchers at the University of Michigan have turned human skin cells into adult-derived stem cells, coaxed them into bone cells and then transplanted them into holes in the skulls of mice. The cells produced four times as much new bone growth as in the mice without the extra bone cells. The researchers proved that this special surface, free of biological contaminants, allows adult-derived stem cells to thrive and transform into multiple cell types. Their success brings stem cell therapies another step closer. An embryo's cells really can be anything they want to be when they grow up: organs, nerves, skin, bone, any type of human cell. Adult-derived "induced" stem cells can do this and better. Because the source cells can come from the patient, they are perfectly compatible for medical treatments.

Paul Krebsbach, chair of biological and materials sciences at the U-M School of Dentistry, said that in order to make them, "We turn back the clock, in a way. We're taking a specialized adult cell and genetically reprogramming it, so it behaves like a more primitive cell." Specifically, human skin cells are turned into stem cells. Less than five years after the discovery of this method, researchers do not know how it works, but the process involves adding proteins that can turn genes on and off to the adult cells.

Stem cells, before they can be utilized to make repairs in the human body, must be grown and directed into becoming the desired cell type. Researchers typically use surfaces of animal cells and proteins for stem cell habitats, but these gels are expensive to make, and batches vary depending on the individual animal. "You don't really know what's in there," said Joerg Lahann associate professor of chemical engineering and biomedical engineering at the Ann Arbor-based institution.

  Read more ..


The Digital Edge

Why Did Pakistan Shut Off Twitter?

May 24th 2012

twitter jail

It only lasted for about 8 hours, but that was long enough to start a whole new round of Internet rumor and worry. On Sunday, May 20th, Pakistani telecommunications authorities suddenly blocked all access to the micro-blogging site Twitter, effectively shutting off the service within Pakistan. Then, just as suddenly, service was restored that evening, leaving behind angry web activists and charges about why access was cut off in the first place. The official reason given: concerns about an event that’s come to be known as “Everybody Draw Muhammad Day.”

As background, in 2010, a Seattle-based cartoonist, angered by death threats made by some Islamic activists against the animation team behind South Park, urged people to draw images of the prophet Muhammad on May 20 and post them online. Free-speech advocates quickly turned the idea into a satiric event, which drew worldwide headlines and angry responses from those Muslims who consider images of any of the prophets to be blasphemous. At the time authorities in Pakistan were so angered that they blocked access Facebook until the social network agreed to remove pages promoting the event for users in India and Pakistan. (The cartoonist, Molly Norris, has since distanced herself from the event after receiving what the FBI called a “very serious” threat.)
Read more ..

The Farming Edge

Internet Fundraising Helps Farmers Flourish

May 23rd 2012

wheat fields

Josh Brill and Meadow Squire grow vegetables and rice in Tinmouth, Vermont. They wanted to expand their rice production last fall, but lacked the needed funds to do it. So they posted a six-minute video on Kickstarter, a crowd-sourced funding website. Seventy-six people thought enough of the couple’s dream to send them money. Brill and Squire raised over $6,000.

Thousands of Americans use Kickstarter to raise money for specific projects. The site launched in 2009 primarily to help artists and musicians but today, inventors, entrepreneurs and a growing number of farmers are also using the site. Scott Nelson of Friendly Folk Farm in Brookfield, Vermont, is one of them. He wanted to document the growth and development of his farm - to create a kind of how-to video for others interested in organic farming. He raised nearly $9,000 on Kickstarter.

To raise money on Kickstarter, you have to have a specific, creative project in mind - one approved by the website.  Many entrepreneurs, like Brill and Squire, include a video to explain what their project is and why people should support it.  There’s also a deadline for raising the cash - typically about 30 days. To entice people to pledge, projects also include a list of thank you gifts for various levels of support. Brill and Squire gave supporters packs of seeds, rice they’d harvested, and good karma points. “Yeah," Squire says with a laugh. "Everyone needs more Karma, I think.” Read more ..


The Edge of Space

Private Spacecraft Heads to ISS

May 23rd 2012

Falcon 9 liftoff
credit: Chris Thompson/SpaceX

The private U.S. company Space Exploration Technologies, known as SpaceX, successfully launched its Falcon 9 rocket and reusable Dragon space capsule from Cape Canaveral in Florida before dawn Tuesday.

“Three, two, one, zero and launch of the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket, as NASA turns to the private sector to resupply the International Space Station,” announced NASA launch commentator George Diller as the rocket, carrying the Dragon space capsule, soared into the dark sky. The unmanned Dragon capsule is heading to the International Space Station, an orbiting lab that zooms around the Earth at more than 32,000 kilometers per hour. It is the first time a private spacecraft has attempted to catch up to the orbiting lab, a feat that has only been achieved by official space agences of the United States, Russia, Europe and Japan.

NASA Administrator Charlie Bolden grinned as he spoke to journalists at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida after the successful launch. “The significance of this day cannot be overstated,” said Bolden. “A private company has launched a spacecraft to the International Space Station that will attempt to dock there for the first time. And, while there is a lot of work ahead to successfully complete this mission, we are certainly off to a good start, and I hope you would all agree on that.” Read more ..


The 2012 Vote

Study Asks Why are Some People "Morally" Against Tax?

May 23rd 2012

Tax Protest

As the U.S. presidential election campaigns heat up, the economic debate is dominated by bailouts, austerity and, inevitably, taxation. Now a new study published in Symbolic Interaction asks why tax is such an important issue to voters and explores the moral ideas which underpin their views.

Americans are famously hostile to taxes even though they are not heavily taxed in comparison to Canadians and the British. In their study Dr Jeff Kidder and Dr Isaac Martin, from Northern Illinois University and the University of California-San Diego, explore how middle class feelings of exploitation lie behind this hostility. "Everyday tax talk among the middle class is not simply part of a wider ideological view about economics or free markets," said Kidder. "Tax talk is morally charged and resonates with how Americans see themselves and their place in society." Read more ..


The Canine Edge

Ancient Dog Mystery Remains Unsolved

May 23rd 2012

rottweiler

Exactly where man’s best friend came from remains a mystery. Thousands of years of cross-breeding have made it difficult for scientists to trace the ancient genetic roots of today’s dogs. Still, British researchers gave it a try. They recently compared genetic data from 1,375 modern-day dogs, from 35 different breeds, to global archeological records of dog remains. Although, other genetic studies suggest dogs descended from the grey wolf, the researchers found modern dog breeds, genetically speaking, have little in common with their ancient ancestors.

Dogs were the first animals domesticated by man about 15,000 years ago. However, we really didn’t start keeping them as pets until about 2,000 years ago. Even so, until fairly recently, most dogs were kept and used to perform specific jobs. Although some dog breeds – such as the Akita, Afghan Hound and the Chinese Shar-Pei – have been classified as ancient by canine experts, they’re no closer to the first domesticated dogs than any other modern breeds. This, according to the study, is again due to cross-breeding through the years.

Other aspects affecting the dog’s genetic diversity include human movement and migration. Major worldwide events, such as the two world wars, also impacted the dog population, the researchers said. Breeds like the Saluki appear genetically different because they were geographically isolated and were not part of the 19th century efforts to blend lineages to create most of the breeds we keep as pets today. Lead author Greger Larson, an evolutionary biologist in Durham University’s Department of Archaeology, said, “Ironically, the ubiquity of dogs combined with their deep history has obscured their origins and made it difficult for us to know how dogs became man’s best friend. All dogs have undergone significant amounts of cross-breeding to the point that we have not yet been able to trace all the way back to their very first ancestors.”
Read more ..


The Weapon's Edge

Israeli Military Uses Biomimicry to Design Butterfly Drone

May 22nd 2012

Butterfly 01

Biomimicry is one of the smartest contemporary approaches to design, so it was inevitable that Israeli researchers would apply this science to their military designs. Like the Iranian home that mimics a snail’s form in order to stay cool and a bottle inspired by the Namib desert beetle that can harvest water in one of the driest places on earth, Israel Aerospace Industries’ (AIA) latest insect drone, their smallest to date at only 20 grams, takes its intelligence, form and other properties from one of nature’s finest creatures: the butterfly.

An indoor butterfly

The Butterfly drone can perform tricks that have never before been achieved by a surveillance device. It can fly indoors, thereby enabling covert information gathering during meetings inside buildings, at train stations and other public buildings as well as outdoors, and it is equipped with a tiny 0.15 gram camera that takes color photographs. Read more ..


The Ancient Edge

Climate Change Impacts Human Evolution

May 22nd 2012

Neanderthal child mannequin

Most scientists agree that the Earth is undergoing significant climate change, partly due to the greenhouse gases produced when fossil fuels like oil, gas and coal are burned. However, earth scientists know that the planetary environment has always been in flux. Some of those changes have caused extinctions on a massive scale. However, for humans, higher apes and other large mammals, environmental fluctuations have sometimes been a goad to adaptation.

Geologists and climatologists, who specialize in the physical earth sciences, came together with biologists, paleontologists and anthropologists, who mainly concern themselves with life on Earth, for a symposium at Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, to discuss the question, “Did Climate Change Shape Human Evolution?” “This is a meeting I’ve been trying to have for, I’d say, at least the last 10 years,” says Peter deMenocal, of Columbia University’s Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, who organized the multi-disciplinary event. “The message from earth’s history is that climate has played a role in every major faunal change event in recorded history. That said, this question of how climate shaped or may have been involved in human evolution is very much an open one we don’t have an answer to. But we’ve got some very intriguing initial clues that point to a strong relationship.” Read more ..

The Health Edge

US Panel Recommends Ending Routine Blood Test for Prostate Cancer

May 22nd 2012

blood test

An independent panel of U.S. public health officials is recommending that physicians no longer use a blood test to screen men for prostate cancer. The Congressionally-created advisory group, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, says the widely-used test does more harm than good. Prostate cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the U.S. Last year, more than 240,000 mostly older men in their 60s got the news. An estimated 33,000 died of the disease.

The prostate is a small, walnut-shaped organ that’s part of the male reproductive system, producing the fluid that carries sperm. Since the 1990s, the so-called prostate specific antigen or PSA test has been a routine part of medical care for men aged 55 and older in the U.S. and other developed countries. The PSA test measures levels of a protein in the blood that are elevated in the presence of prostate cancer. If cancer is found, it is treated aggressively, in nearly 90 percent of patients, with radiation, surgery or estrogen therapy designed to shrink the tumor. But the PSA test has a high rate of false positives. So, men who turn out to have no cancer at all, or whose tumors are so small they pose no real health threat, often get unnecessary interventions such as uncomfortable and medically risky prostate tissue biopsies. Read more ..

The Chemical Edge

Alternatives Sought for Endangered Rubber Supplies

May 20th 2012

Isoprene

Rubber supplies are in peril, and automobile tire producers are scrambling to seek alternative solutions.

Tom Sharkey, chairperson of the Michigan State University biochemistry and molecular biology department, believes isoprene, a gas given off by many trees, ferns and mosses, could be a viable option. Some plants use it as a mechanism to tolerate heat stress as opposed to most crops, which stay cool through evaporation.

Sharkey’s research team already has measured rates of isoprene emission from plants that are used by the Environmental Protection Agency to predict lower-atmosphere ozone levels. His team also has created models to measure how much isoprene plants release on a global scale. Given the amounts of isoprene made by plants, finding a way to produce a synthetic version for the rubber industry seemed like the next logical step, Sharkey said. Read more ..


The Health Edge

Rabies Evolves Slower in Hibernating Bats

May 19th 2012

egyptian fruit bat

The rate at which the rabies virus evolves in bats may depend heavily upon the ecological traits of its hosts, according to researchers at the University of Georgia, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in Belgium. Their study found that the host's geographical location was the most accurate predictor of the viral rate of evolution. Rabies viruses in tropical and sub-tropical bat species evolved nearly four times faster than viral variants in bats in temperate regions.

"Species that are widely distributed can have different behaviors in different geographical areas," said Daniel, the study's leader. "Bats in the tropics are active year-round, so more rabies virus transmission events occur per year. Viruses in hibernating bats, on the other hand, might lose up to six months' worth of opportunities for transmission."

Understanding the relationship between host ecology and viral evolution rates could shed light on the transmission dynamics of other viruses, such as influenza, that occur across regions, infect multiple host species or whose transmission dynamics are impacted by anthropogenic change. Read more ..


The Weather Edge

Pollution Teams With Thunderclouds to Warm Atmosphere

May 19th 2012

Click to select Image

Pollution is warming the atmosphere through summer thunderstorm clouds, according to a computational study published May 10 in Geophysical Research Letters. How much the warming effect of these clouds offsets the cooling that other clouds provide is not yet clear. To find out, researchers need to incorporate this new-found warming into global climate models.

Pollution strengthens thunderstorm clouds, causing their anvil-shaped tops to spread out high in the atmosphere and capture heat -- especially at night, said lead author and climate researcher Jiwen Fan of the Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. "Global climate models don't see this effect because thunderstorm clouds simulated in those models do not include enough detail," said Fan. "The large amount of heat trapped by the pollution-enhanced clouds could potentially impact regional circulation and modify weather systems." Clouds are one of the most poorly understood components of Earth's climate system. Called deep convective clouds, thunderstorm clouds reflect a lot of the sun's energy back into space, trap heat that rises from the surface, and return evaporated water back to the surface as rain, making them an important part of the climate cycle. Read more ..


The Koreas on Edge

Japan Launches South Korean Satellite Into Orbit

May 18th 2012

Click to select Image

Japan has successfully launched a South Korean satellite. The historical accomplishment puts the Japanese in the same arena as European and Russian entities in the lucrative commercial space launch business. The roar of the H-2A launch vehicle shattered the early morning silence On the southern Japanese island of Tanegashima.  The space center was illuminated as the liquid-fueled 57-meter high two-stage rocket rose off the pad with four satellites on board. Sixteen minutes after launch, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) announced the first payload had successfully separated.

The Arirang-3 satellite (also known as KOMPSAT-3) was then placed into orbit. The Korean Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) says it is functioning normally. Also deployed Friday from the H-2A rocket was a satellite with the world's largest revolving antenna. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) is able to measure water temperature from the sea surface with an accuracy of 0.5 degrees Celsius. Scientists say the Japanese satellite, nick-named “Shizuku,” will play an important role in monitoring global water circulation and climate change. Read more ..


The Medical Edge

Human Suspicion Impulse Resides in Two Regions of the Brain

May 17th 2012

Baby Boomer

The baseline level of distrust is distinct and separable from our inborn lie detector. Fool me once, shame on you. Fool me twice, shame on my parahippocampal gyrus.

Scientists at the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute have found that suspicion resides in two distinct regions of the brain: the amygdala, which plays a central role in processing fear and emotional memories, and the parahippocampal gyrus, which is associated with declarative memory and the recognition of scenes.

"We wondered how individuals assess the credibility of other people in simple social interactions," said Read Montague, director of the Human Neuroimaging Laboratory and the Computational Psychiatry Unit at the Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute, who led the study. "We found a strong correlation between the amygdala and a baseline level of distrust, which may be based on a person's beliefs about the trustworthiness of other people in general, his or her emotional state, and the situation at hand. What surprised us, though, is that when other people's behavior aroused suspicion, the parahippocampal gyrus lit up, acting like an inborn lie detector." Read more ..


The Digital Edge

Navigating the Shopping Center

May 16th 2012

I-phone

With a GPS receiver in your smart-phone, you can navigate your way over highways and streets with certainty. But once you get inside a building, it provides no further assistance. That’s why Fraunhofer researchers, together with the Bosch Corporation and other partners, have engineered a navigation system for interior spaces. Thanks to a clever combination of sensors, the module tracks the movements and position of its user in precise detail. At the Sensor+Test trade fair in Nuremberg from May 22-24, 2012, researchers will deliver a live demonstration of how this new interior-space navigation operates.

A smart-phone with GPS functionality is a delightful tool. It guides its owner safely and with certainty through the streets of an unfamiliar city. But after arriving at the destination, all too often the orientation is gone, because as soon as you enter a building, you lose contact with the GPS satellites. Then you are on your own – whether in the interminable hallways of the trade fair complex, or inside one of the branches of the local megaplex shopping mall. “Wouldn't it be helpful,” Harald von Rosenberg thought to himself, “if at such moments the smart-phone could quickly shift to an interior space navigator, and point the way through the rows of shops and stairwells?” Well, that is absolutely possible, as the project manager for “motion control systems” at the Stuttgart-based Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA now demonstrates through the “MST-Smartsense” cooperation project from the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research BMBF. Read more ..


The Toxic Edge

“Dip Chip” Technology Tests Toxicity On-the-Go

May 15th 2012

Hikers on Garfield Peak Trail, Crater Lake
Garfield Peak Trail, Crater Lake (credit: Mark Gorzynski)

From man-made toxic chemicals such as industrial by-products to poisons that occur naturally, a water or food supply can be easily contaminated. And for every level of toxic material ingested, there is some level of bodily response, ranging from minor illness to painful certain death.

Biosensors have long been used to safeguard against exposure to toxic chemicals. Food tasters employed by the ancients acted as early versions of biosensors, determining if a meal had been poisoned. More modern examples include the use of fish, which may alter their swimming characteristics if a toxic material is introduced into to the water. But although current warning systems are more sophisticated, they require equipment and time that a soldier in the field or an adventurer in the wilderness do not have.

Now Prof. Yosi Shacham-Diamand, Vice Dean of Tel Aviv University’s Faculty of Engineering, along with Prof. Shimshon Belkin of the Institute of Life Sciences at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, has married biology and engineering to produce a biosensor device called the “Dip Chip,” which detects toxicity quickly and accurately, generating low false positive and false negative readings. Read more ..


The Edge of Space

Vesta Asteroid Collision Occurred More Recently than Thought

May 15th 2012

Vesta asteroid

A team of researchers led by a NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI) member based at Southwest Research Institute has discovered evidence that the giant impact crater Rheasilvia on Asteroid (4) Vesta was created in a collision that occurred only about 1 billion years ago, much more recently than previously thought. This result is based on the analysis of high-resolution images obtained with the Dawn spacecraft, which entered orbit around Vesta in July 2011.

In addition to creating the crater, the impact is believed to have launched a large number of fragments into space, some of which later escaped the main belt and possibly hit the Earth. Vesta, the second-most massive body in the main asteroid belt, is believed to have formed within the first few million years after the earliest solar system solids (~4.6 billion years ago). According to models, its early evolution occurred in an environment where collisions with other asteroids were much more frequent than they are today. It was thought that one such early collision on Vesta created a swarm of fragments, which we now call an asteroid family. Although Vesta and its family are located between Mars and Jupiter, smaller pieces of these asteroids can be found in meteorite collections on Earth, including most eucrite, howardite and diogenite meteorites. Several large craters on Vesta were first inferred by Hubble Space Telescope imaging. Read more ..


The Edge of Agriculture

Futuristic Hydogel Technology Makes Desert Crops Flourish on Barren Soil

May 14th 2012

Hydrogel crops

Here’s another futuristic invention that could completely change the future of agriculture in a desertifying world. Substituting an industrially produced hydrogel for soil makes it possible to farm on sterile desert sand. Similarly to Pink LEDs Grow Future Food with 90% Less Water, this amazing sci fi technology allows the farming of the desert, with 80 percent less water than needed in traditional farming.

The hydrogel technology is the invention of Waseda University Visiting Professor Yuichi Mori, who has years of experience in developing polymeric membranes for use in medical technologies such as blood purification and oxygen enrichment. But Mori saw the greatest need was in desert farming in a future world faced with explosive population growth, but diminishing potential for traditional soil-based agriculture due to soil degradation, erosion, and drought. His hydrogel membrane–based plant cultivation technology has a unique membrane technology. The simple system is much more portable than traditional hydroponics. Read more ..


Earth on Edge

Reading the Ash from the Icelandic Volcano

May 13th 2012

Eyjafjallajökull eruption Apr 2010
Eyjafjallajökull eruption, Apr 2010 (© 2010/credit: Marco Fulle)

In May 2010, the ash cloud from the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull reached the Iberian Peninsula and brought airports to a halt all over Europe. At the time, scientists followed its paths using satellites, laser detectors, sun photometers, and other instruments. Two years later they have now presented the results and models that will help to prevent the consequences of such natural phenomena.

The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in the south of Iceland began on 20 March 2010. On 14 April, it began to emit a cloud of ash that moved towards Northern and Central Europe, resulting in the closure of airspace. Hundreds of planes and millions of passengers were grounded. After a period of calm, volcanic activity intensified once again on 3 May. This time the winds transported the aerosols (a mixture of particles and gas) towards Spain and Portugal, where some airports had to close between 6 and 12 May. This was also a busy time for scientists, who took advantage of the situation to monitor the phenomenon. Read more ..


The Prehistoric Edge

Were Dinosaurs Undergoing Long-term Decline before the Mass Extinction?

May 13th 2012

T-Rex (AMNH)

Despite years of intensive research about the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs about 65.5 million years ago, a fundamental question remains: were dinosaurs already undergoing a long-term decline before an asteroid hit at the end of the Cretaceous? A study led by scientists at the American Museum of Natural History gives a multifaceted answer. The findings, published in Nature Communications, suggest that in general, large-bodied, “bulk-feeding” herbivores were declining during the last 12 million years of the Cretaceous. But carnivorous dinosaurs and mid-sized herbivores were not. In some cases, geographic location might have been a factor in the animals’ biological success.

“Few issues in the history of paleontology have fueled as much research and popular fascination as the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs,” said lead author Steve Brusatte, a Columbia University graduate student affiliated with the Museum’s Division of Paleontology. “Did sudden volcanic eruptions or an asteroid impact strike down dinosaurs during their prime? We found that it was probably much more complex than that, and maybe not the sudden catastrophe that is often portrayed.” Read more ..


The Edge of Space

IBEX Finds that Expected Solar System Boundary Isn’t There

May 13th 2012

IBEX in high Earth orbit
Artist's conception of IBEX in high Earth orbit (credit: NASA GSFC)

For the last few decades, space scientists have generally accepted that the bubble of gas and magnetic fields generated by the sun—known as the heliosphere—moves through space, creating three distinct boundary layers that culminate in an outermost bow shock. This shock is similar to the sonic boom created ahead of a supersonic jet. Earth itself certainly has one of these bow shocks on the sunward side of its magnetic environment, as do most other planets and many stars. A collection of new data from NASA’s Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX), however, now indicate that the sun does not have a bow shock.

For a paper appearing in Science Express, scientists compiled data from IBEX, NASA’s twin Voyager spacecraft, and computer models to show that the heliosphere just isn’t moving fast enough to create a bow shock in the tenuous and highly magnetized region in our local part of the galaxy.

“IBEX gives a global view. It shows the whole of this region,” says Eric Christian, the mission scientist for IBEX at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. and who was formerly the program scientist for Voyager. “At the same time the Voyager spacecraft are actually there, in situ, measuring its environment at two locations. The combination of IBEX and Voyager gives you great science and now the new IBEX results strongly indicate that there is no bow shock.” Read more ..


The Health Edge

Novel Approach to Stimulate Immune Cells

May 13th 2012

Synapse

Researchers at Rutgers University have uncovered a new way to stimulate activity of immune cell opiate receptors, leading to efficient tumor cell clearance. Sarkar, professor in the Department of Animal Sciences at the Rutgers School of Environmental and Biological Sciences and his research team have been able to take a new pharmacological approach to activate the immune cells to prevent cancer growth through stimulation of the opiate receptors found on immune cells.

This research, funded by the National Institutes of Health-National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholosm. It describes two structurally different but functionally similar opioid receptors, Mu- and Delta-opioid receptors. These receptors form protein complexes as either two structurally similar receptors as a homodimer—formed by two identical molecules—or two structurally dissimilar protein complexes as a heterodimer—formed by ethanol inducement—in immune cells. The team pharmacologically fooled these two structurally different but functionally similar opioid receptors to form more homodimers so that opioid peptide increases the immune cells’ ability to kill tumor cells. Read more ..


The Environmental Edge

Groundwater Pumping Leads to Sea Level Rise, Cancels Out Effect of Dams

May 12th 2012

Stormy Seas

As people pump groundwater for irrigation, drinking water, and industrial uses, the water doesn’t just seep back into the ground — it also evaporates into the atmosphere, or runs off into rivers and canals, eventually emptying into the world’s oceans. This water adds up, and a new study calculates that by 2050, groundwater pumping will cause a global sea level rise of about 0.8 millimeters per year.

“Other than ice on land, the excessive groundwater extractions are fast becoming the most important terrestrial water contribution to sea level rise,” said Yoshihide Wada, with Utrecht University in the Netherlands and lead author of the study. In the coming decades, he noted, groundwater contributions to sea level rise are expected to become as significant as those of melting glaciers and ice caps outside of Greenland and the Antarctic. Between around 1970 and 1990, sea level rise caused by groundwater pumping was cancelled out as people built dams, trapping water in reservoirs so the water wouldn’t empty into the sea, Wada said. His research shows that starting in the 1990s, that changed as populations started pumping more groundwater and building fewer dams. Read more ..


The Robotic Edge

UK Opens Europe's Largest Robotics Laboratory

May 12th 2012

Click to select Image

The Bristol Robotics Lab is a partnership between UWE Bristol (University of the West of England) and the University of Bristol. It is home to 70 academics and businesses who are leading current thinking in 'nouvelle' and service robotics, intelligent autonomous systems and bio-engineering. Over £1.65 million has been spent on the new facilities which cover 2,400 sqm, with over 300 metres of specialised laboratory space and two Flying Arenas.

"This is probably the largest robotics lab in Europe," said Libor Kral, Head of Unit Cognitive Systems for Interaction Robotics at the European Commission. Robotics is a key element for Eruipe, he says. "In the current framework we have over 100 projectsa and E500m for robotics enabling technology and this is the largest no-military funding project in the world for robotics." The next set of European Framework projects will concentrate more on industrial led developments and new efforts to attract industrial partners, he said. Read more ..


Nature Edge

Michigan Builds Spawning Rock Reefs to Preserve Native Fish Species

May 11th 2012

Sturgeon - Great Lakes
Great Lakes sturgeon and spawning reef

The construction of rock reefs in Great Lakes waterways are expected to aid in the survival of fish. The rock reefs are designed to assist several native species that are considered threatened or endangered in Michigan, including lake sturgeon, mooneye, the northern madtom catfish and the river redhorse sucker. Walleye, a popular sport fish, and commercially important lake whitefish should also benefit, according to a release from the University of Michigan.

The new reefs will be constructed in the Middle Channel of the St. Clair River delta, not far from Detroit and near an existing lake sturgeon spawning site. The $1.1 million St. Clair project is a follow-up to rock reefs built on the Detroit River in 2004 and 2008.

"We've been working together on these reefs for more than 10 years now, and over the course of time we've really figured out what kinds of physical characteristics the fish are attracted to," said project leader Jennifer Read, acting director of Michigan Sea Grant, a cooperative program of the University of Michigan and Michigan State University. Michigan Sea Grant is a Center of Excellence at the U-M School of Natural Resources and Environment. Read more ..


The Edge of Space

Vesta by Dawn

May 11th 2012

Dawn observing Vesta
Artist's Conception of Dawn spacecraft observing Vesta
(credit: NASA JPL; Caltech)

When UCLA’s Christopher T. Russell looks at the images of the protoplanet Vesta produced by NASA’s Dawn mission, he talks about beauty as much as he talks about science. “Vesta looks like a little planet. It has a beautiful surface, much more varied and diverse than we expected,” said Russell, a professor in UCLA’s Department of Earth and Space Sciences and the Dawn mission’s principal investigator. “We knew Vesta’s surface had some variation in color, but we did not expect the diversity that we see or the clarity of the colors and textures, or their distinct boundaries. We didn’t find gold on Vesta, but it is still a gold mine.”

There are six new papers about Vesta, named for the ancient Roman goddess of the hearth, in the May 11 edition of Science, and Russell is a co-author on all of them.

Dawn has been orbiting Vesta and collecting data on the protoplanet’s surface since July 2011. Vesta, which is in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, is currently some 321 million miles from Earth. Russell and his scientific team expected to find one large crater on Vesta, but they were surprised to find two, with the larger one—about 344 miles across—essentially on top of the smaller. Read more ..


The Race for Alt Fuel

Secrets of the First Practical Artificial Leaf

May 11th 2012

Artificial Leaf

A detailed description of development of the first practical artificial leaf—a milestone in the drive for sustainable energy that mimics the process, photosynthesis, that green plants use to convert water and sunlight into energy—appears in the ACS journal Accounts of Chemical Research. The article notes that unlike earlier devices, which used costly ingredients, the new device is made from inexpensive materials and employs low-cost engineering and manufacturing processes.

Daniel G. Nocera points out that the artificial leaf responds to the vision of a famous Italian chemist who, in 1912, predicted that scientists one day would uncover the “guarded secret of plants.” The most important of those, Nocera says, is the process that splits water into hydrogen and oxygen.

The artificial leaf has a sunlight collector sandwiched between two films that generate oxygen and hydrogen gas. When dropped into a jar of water in the sunlight, it bubbles away, releasing hydrogen that can be used in fuel cells to make electricity. These self-contained units hold promise for making fuel for electricity in remote places and the developing world, but designs demonstrated thus far rely on metals like platinum and manufacturing processes that make them cost-prohibitive. Read more ..


The Edge of Space

Massive Black Holes Disrupt Star Formation Process

May 10th 2012

Massive black hole disrupting star formation
Artist's Conception: Massive black hole disrupts star formation
(credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt)

Astronomers, using the ESA’s Herschel Space Observatory, have shown that the number of stars that form during the early lives of galaxies may be influenced by the massive black holes at their hearts. This helps explain the link between the size of the central bulges of galaxies and the mass of their central black holes.

All large galaxies have a massive black hole at their centre, each millions of times the mass of a single star. For over a decade, scientists have been puzzled as to why the masses of the black holes are linked to the size of the round central bulges at the hearts of galaxies. The suspicion has long been that the answer lies in the early lives of the galaxies, when the stars in the bulge were forming. To study this phase, astronomers need to look at very distant galaxies, so far away that we see them as they were billions of years ago.

Although the black holes themselves cannot be seen, the material closest to them can get incredibly hot, emitting large amounts of light over a very wide range of wavelengths, from radio waves to x-rays. The light from this super-heated material can be trillions of times as bright as the Sun, with brighter emissions indicating a more massive black hole. There are also strong flows of material (winds and jets) expelled from the region around the black hole. Read more ..


The Way We Are

Resolving the Origin of the Domesticated Horse

May 10th 2012

Asian wild horse, Equus ferus przewalskii
Asian wild horse, closest living relative of original domesticated horses
(credit: Chintogtokh)

New research indicates that domestic horses originated in the steppes of modern-day Ukraine, southwest Russia and west Kazakhstan, mixing with local wild stocks as they spread throughout Europe and Asia. The research was published recently in PNAS.

For several decades, scientists puzzled over the origin of domesticated horses. Based on archaeological evidence, it had long been thought that horse domestication originated in the western part of the Eurasian Steppe (Ukraine, southwest Russia and west Kazakhstan); however, a single origin in a geographically restricted area appeared at odds with the large number of female lineages in the domestic horse gene pool, commonly thought to reflect multiple domestication events across a wide geographic area.

In order to solve the perplexing history of the domestic horse, scientists from the University of Cambridge used a genetic database of more than 300 horses sampled from across the Eurasian Steppe to run a number of different modelling scenarios.

Their research shows that the extinct wild ancestor of domestic horses, Equus ferus, expanded out of East Asia approximately 160,000 years ago. They were also able to demonstrate that Equus ferus was domesticated in the western Eurasian Steppe, and that herds were repeatedly restocked with wild horses as they spread across Eurasia. Read more ..


The Environmental Edge

Climate Change is Drying up the Great Southwest

May 10th 2012

Arid Desert

Jonathan Overpeck, professor of Atmospheric Sciences and Geosciences at the University of Arizona, brought a friendly smile, informative graphics and a warning about drought in the Southwest to Sandia’s Climate Change and National Security Speaker Series.

Addressing “Climate Change and the Aridification of the North American Southwest and Beyond,” Overpeck placed water-glass graphic images at key water-storage locations in the Southwest to show how full the reservoirs are. Many glasses are more than half-empty, he said, and computer simulations predict the situation will worsen.

Overpeck has authored more than 150 published papers in climate and environmental sciences. He was coordinating lead author for the Nobel Prize-winning U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (fourth assessment).

In an effort to shed light on the wide spectrum of thought regarding the causes and extent of changes in Earth’s climate, Sandia National Laboratories has invited experts from a wide variety of perspectives to present their views in the Climate Change and National Security Speaker Series.

Overpeck recounted unprecedented heat waves that included a growing number of days above 110 degrees in Phoenix and the 840-square-mile Wallow Fire last May, the biggest wildfire ever in New Mexico and Arizona. He pointed to major floods that, by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration estimates, have caused $53 billion in damages. He also mentioned a record tornado season and an unusually wet and destructive tropical storm. “The temperature record for March 2012 (8.6 degrees above the 20th century average for that month) was big news,” he said. Read more ..


The Way We Are

New Insights into the How of Molecular Handedness

May 9th 2012

Achiral Triangles, Chiral Superstructures
Achiral triangles that have formed chiral super-structures
(credit: Thomas G. Mason and Kun Zhao)

The overwhelming majority of proteins and other functional molecules in our bodies display a striking molecular characteristic: They can exist in two distinct forms that are mirror images of each other, like your right hand and left hand. Surprisingly, each of our bodies prefers only one of these molecular forms.

This mirror-image phenomenon—known as chirality or “handedness”—has captured the imagination of a UCLA research group led by Thomas G. Mason, a professor of chemistry and physics and a member of the California NanoSystems Institute at UCLA. Mason has been exploring how and why chirality arises, and his newest findings on the physical origins of the phenomenon were published May 1 in the journal Nature Communications. “Objects like our hands are chiral, while objects like regular triangles are achiral, meaning they don’t have a handedness to them,” said Mason, the senior author of the study. “Achiral objects can be easily superimposed on top of one another.”

Why many of the important functional molecules in our bodies almost always occur in just one chiral form when they could potentially exist in either is a mystery that has confounded researchers for years. “Our bodies contain important molecules like proteins that overwhelmingly have one type of chirality,” Mason said. “The other chiral form is essentially not found. I find that fascinating. We asked, ‘Could this biological preference of a particular chirality possibly have a physical origin?’” Read more ..


The Edge of Space

VISTA Views a Vast Ball of Stars

May 9th 2012

M55 in Sagittarius via VISTA
VISTA IR image of M55 in Sagitarius
(credit: ESO; J. Emerson; VISTA; Cambridge Astronomical Survey Unit)

Globular clusters are held together in a tight spherical shape by gravity. In Messier 55, the stars certainly keep close company: approximately one hundred thousand stars are packed within a sphere with a diameter of only about 100 light years (about 25 times the distance between the Sun and the nearest star system, Alpha Centauri).

About 160 globular clusters have been spotted circling our galaxy, the Milky Way, mostly toward its bulging centre. The two latest discoveries, made using VISTA, were recently announced by ESO. The largest galaxies can have thousands of these rich collections of stars in orbit around them.

Observations of globular clusters' stars reveal that they originated around the same time—more than 10 billion years ago—and from the same cloud of gas. As this formative period was just a few billion years after the Big Bang, nearly all of the gas on hand was the simplest, lightest and most common in the cosmos: hydrogen, along with some helium and much smaller amounts of heavier chemical elements such as oxygen and nitrogen. Being made mostly from hydrogen distinguishes globular cluster residents from stars born in later eras, like our Sun, that are infused with heavier elements created in earlier generations of stars. The Sun lit up some 4.6 billion years ago, making it only about half as old as the elderly stars in most globular clusters. The chemical makeup of the cloud from which the Sun formed is reflected in the abundances of elements found throughout the Solar System—in asteroids, in the planets, and in our own bodies. Read more ..



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