--Advertisement--
Ad by The Cutting Edge News

The Cutting Edge

Thursday July 20 2017 reaching 1.4 million monthly
--Advertisement--
Ad by The Cutting Edge News

Environmental Edge

Aerosol Particles Affect Climate more than Prior Estimates

August 4th 2011

Environment Topics - North America sat image

Aerosol particles, including soot and sulfur dioxide from burning fossil fuels, essentially mask the effects of greenhouse gases and are at the heart of the biggest uncertainty in climate change prediction. New research from the University of Michigan shows that satellite-based projections of aerosols' effect on Earth's climate significantly underestimate their impacts.

The findings are published by the National Academy of Sciences.

Aerosols are at the core of "cloud drops"—water particles suspended in air that coalesce to form precipitation. Increasing the number of aerosol particles causes an increase in the number of cloud drops, which results in brighter clouds that reflect more light and have a greater cooling effect on the planet.

As to the extent of their cooling effect, scientists offer different scenarios that would raise the global average surface temperature during the next century between under 2 to over 3 degrees Celsius. That may not sound like a broad range, but it straddles the 2-degree tipping point beyond which scientists say the planet can expect more catastrophic climate change effects. Read more ..


The Medical Edge

A Game-changer in Breast Cancer Detection

August 1st 2011

Health/Medicine - RUTH breast cancer detection device

Early detection is the key to improving breast cancer survival rates, but mammography is not the ideal method to accomplish this goal. On this point, medical experts across the globe agree.

Not as clear is what could do the job without the disadvantages of mammography, which often causes pain or discomfort; emits radiation; cannot properly image dense breast tissue; relies on a radiologist’s interpretation of the image; and is not recommended for routine screening of women under age 40 or 50.

Of several approaches being developed worldwide, an Israeli solution pioneered by electro-optical engineer Boaz Arnon holds particular promise in providing a game-changing device for early detection of breast cancer. Read more ..


The Medical Edge

Blood and Lymphatic Vessels: Past Lessons, Future Hopes

August 1st 2011

Health/Medicine - zebrafish embryo
Zebrafish embryo

“I believe there is real magic in the way that embryos develop. I’ve been studying them for almost 15 years and I haven’t stopped being amazed,” says Dr. Karina Yaniv of the Weizmann Institute of Science’s Department of Biological Regulation.

Dr. Yaniv focuses on examining how blood and lymphatic vessels form during embryonic development. Her research may, in the future, lead to new therapies for heart disease, stroke, cancer, and other illnesses. “I think it’s imperative for us to learn how to manipulate vessel growth,” she says. “Sometimes we want to encourage vessel growth and sometimes we want to stop it.”

In cardiac ischemia, for example, a partially or completely blocked artery causes a decrease in the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart. As a result, the heart muscle tissue can be damaged. “But if we knew how to grow new blood vessels, we could save that tissue,” says Dr. Yaniv. Read more ..


Artificial Intelligence

Humanoid Robots may Diagnose Neuro-Developmental Delays and Autism in Children

July 28th 2011

Science - silver robot

STMicroelectronics and Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna of Pisa announced the creation of a joint laboratory for research and innovation in bio-robotics, smart systems and microelectronics. The work at the new laboratory in Catania, Italy is to lead to a better understanding of the physical design of bodies and the organization of their sensory and nervous systems.

Past collaboration between ST and Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna resulted in joint projects including DustBot, a scientific platform integrating self-driven, self-navigating ‘service robots’ for selective waste collection and street cleaning in city centers. Going forward, experts will be collaborating to develop smart toys equipped with motion and pressure sensors for early diagnosis of neuro-developmental delays and autistic pathologies in small children. Read more ..


Medical Edge

Re-Programmed Adult Skin Cells behave like Embryonic Stem Cells for Disease Studies

July 27th 2011

Science - Stemcell electron microscope

The University of Michigan's Consortium for Stem Cell Therapies has achieved another of its primary goals: reprogramming adult skin cells so they behave like embryonic stem cells. The reprogrammed cells are called induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPS cells. They display many of the most scientifically valuable properties of embryonic stem cells while enabling researchers to bypass embryos altogether.

U-M researchers will use the iPS cells side by side with human embryonic stem cells to study the origin and progression of various diseases and to search for new treatments. Three of the consortium's first five iPS cell lines came from skin cells donated by patients with bipolar disorder and will be used to study that condition. Read more ..


Ancient Edge

Best-Preserved House Discovered of Kingdom of Israel is 3,000 Years Old

July 26th 2011

Archaeology Topics - Israel dig, Dr Shay Bar, Univ Haifa
Credit: Dr Shay Bar, Univ. of Haifa

In addition to many findings dating back to the Kingdom of Israel (some 3,000 years ago), remains of a Persian city (2,400 years ago) and a Byzantine town (1,500 years ago) have been exposed at the site. Plans are in place to develop the excavation site as a public archaeology park

Exceptional detective-archaeological work at the first season of archaeological digs at Tel Shikmona, on the southern edge of Israel's city of Haifa, has uncovered the remains of a house dating back to the period of the Kingdom of Israel. The site was excavated about 40 years ago and due to neglect and layers of earth and garbage that piled up over the decades, the historical remains were hidden and little was known about what lay below. Read more ..


Ancient Edge

Ancient Tsunami May have Buried the City of the Original Olympics

July 26th 2011

Archaeology Topics - Temple of Hera - Olympia

Olympia, site of the famous Temple of Zeus and original venue of the Olympic Games in ancient Greece, was presumably destroyed by repeated tsunamis that travelled considerable distances inland, and not by earthquake and river floods as has been assumed to date. Evidence in support of this new theory on the virtual disappearance of the ancient cult site on the Peloponnesian peninsula comes from Professor Dr Andreas Vött of the Institute of Geography of Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany. Vött investigated the site as part of a project in which he and his team are studying the paleotsunamis that occurred along the coastlines of the eastern Mediterranean over the last 11,000 years. Read more ..


The Race for Connectivity

Politically-connected LightSquared Pushes Wireless Internet Plan despite GPS Interference Concerns

July 25th 2011

Technology - gps devices

When the Federal Communications Commission granted LightSquared Inc. expedited approval to launch a new wireless Internet service, some powerful voices in Washington expressed alarm, including the Pentagon and one-third of the U.S. Senate.

LightSquared’s bold $14 billion plan, its detractors said, could cripple Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) systems and threaten aviation safety, disrupt military and rescue operations, and interfere with high-tech farming equipment and the everyday navigation devices used by millions.

LightSquared says it has pursued its case through official channels. But little gets done in the nation’s capital without some kind of political connection, and in this regard, LightSquared’s bloodline is particularly rich. Its ties to President Obama’s supporters and the administration’s policy interests run deep, explaining the company’s ability to do battle with powerful entrenched interests. Read more ..


The Urban Edge

Need a Taxi? There’s an App for That

July 25th 2011

Technology - get-taxi screenshot

Israel’s GetTaxi mobile phone application puts an end to running down the street with an outstretched arm—and benefits drivers as well.

Carrie Bradshaw on Sex and the City showed us how strategic one must be when grabbing a taxicab. It’s not only a cutthroat business where people jump around each other to get the first cab; you can get splashed on, taken for a scenic ride if you aren’t a local, or worse, wait forever until a cab comes your way. Not to mention the occasional crime against rider or driver.

A new Israeli app rolling out in Israel, London and then Paris, Berlin, Moscow, and beyond points the way for changing the century-old tradition of hailing a cab with your hand or reserving by phone call and standing around waiting.

The company, GetTaxi has developed an application that can be downloaded to your mobile phone. Tap on the screen, and the request is delivered to a call center. Like watching Pac-man travel around the computer screen, you can watch in real-time as your taxi approaches where you are waiting. Simultaneously, users receive information about their driver, including picture, name, license number and ratings by other GetTaxi users. Read more ..


The Geologic Edge

Dirty Diamonds Contain the Record of How the Earth's Surface Was Created

July 22nd 2011

Science - Diamond in the rough

Impurities may not actually add to the value of diamonds, but geophysicists, geologists and other scientists find them to be a boon to understanding the forces that created the face of the Earth. These impurities, found within the super-hard structure of diamonds, are unaltered and ancient minerals that reveal our planet's distant past. Researchers analyzed data from the literature of over 4,000 of these mineral inclusions to find that continents started the cycle of breaking apart, drifting, and colliding about 3 billion years ago. The research pinpoints when this so-called Wilson cycle began.

The lead author of a recent study of diamond impurities, Steven Shirey at the Carnegie Institution’s Department of Terrestrial Magnetism explained “The Wilson cycle is responsible for the growth of the Earth’s continental crust, the continental structures we see today, the opening and closing of ocean basins through time, mountain building, and the distribution of ores and other materials in the crust. Read more ..

The Metal's Edge

Conflict-free Tantalum Emerges for Telecom Industry

July 18th 2011

Environment Topics - Tantalum in the hand

AVX Corporation, in partnership with a leading producer of communications technology, has developed the “Solutions for Hope Project,” which is a pilot program established to demonstrate a process to deliver conflict-free tantalum material from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) under the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines.

The process’ basis is a ”closed pipe” principle in which tantalite ore mined from a single site within the Katanga Province of the DRC is traced along its secure closed supply chain to the end-customer’s equipment in the form of tantalum capacitors supplied by AVX. Read more ..


Edge on Health

Wireless Power for Implanted Heart Pumps may Cut the Cord for Patients

July 13th 2011

Science - Xray heart pump

Mechanical pumps to give failing hearts a boost were originally developed as temporary measures for patients awaiting a heart transplant. But as the technology has improved, these ventricular assist devices commonly operate in patients for years. Prolonged use, however, has its own problems. The power cord that protrudes through the patient's belly is cumbersome and prone to infection over time. Infections occur in close to 40 percent of patients, are the leading cause of rehospitalization, and can be fatal.

Researchers at the University of Washington and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center have tested a wireless power system for ventricular assist devices. They recently presented the work in Washington, D.C. at the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs annual meeting, where it received the Willem Kolff/Donald B. Olsen Award for most promising research in the development of artificial hearts. Read more ..


Edge of the Universe

The Universe May Have Been Born Spinning

July 13th 2011

Science - Revolving galaxy

Physicists and astronomers have long believed that the universe has mirror symmetry, like a basketball. But recent findings from the University of Michigan suggest that the shape of the Big Bang might be more complicated than previously thought, and that the early universe spun on an axis.

To test for the assumed mirror symmetry, physics professor Michael Longo and a team of five undergraduates catalogued the rotation direction of tens of thousands of spiral galaxies photographed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

The mirror image of a counter-clockwise rotating galaxy would have clockwise rotation. More of one type than the other would be evidence for a breakdown of symmetry, or, in physics speak, a parity violation on cosmic scales, Longo said. Read more ..


Edge the Brain

Scientists Discover how Best to Excite Brain Cells

July 13th 2011

Science - glowing neuron

Oh, the challenges of being a neuron, responsible for essential things like muscle contraction, gland secretion and sensitivity to touch, sound and light, yet constantly bombarded with signals from here, there and everywhere.

How on earth are busy nerve cells supposed to pick out and respond to relevant signals amidst all that information overload?

Somehow neurons do manage to accomplish the daunting task, and they do it with more finesse than anyone ever realized, new research by University of Michigan mathematician Daniel Forger and coauthors demonstrates. Their findings—which not only add to basic knowledge about how neurons work, but also suggest ways of better designing the brain implants used to treat diseases such as Parkinson's disease—were published July 7 in the online, open-access journal PLoS Computational Biology.

Forger and coauthors David Paydarfar at the University of Massachusetts Medical School and John Clay at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke studied neuronal excitation using mathematical models and experiments with that most famous of neuroscience study subjects, the squid giant axon—a long arm of a nerve cell that controls part of the water jet propulsion system in squid. Read more ..


The Digital Edge

Thunderbolt Interconnect: Two Channels of Data Transfer Offers a Lot of Noise but no Spark

July 12th 2011

Computer Topics - Hand on Mouse

The newly released Thunderbolt interconnect provides two channels of bi-directional data transfer at 10-Gbps rates, which admittedly is way beyond an order of magnitude more than what the USB 2.0 protocol offers. In the future, that will be bolstered even further, as the interconnect will incorporate optical (hence its original name of "LightPeak") as well as copper cabling. However, this is still likely to be some way off.

The huge jump in bandwidth Thunderbolt represents means that, in principal, it should prove to be a very attractive prospect. Despite this, there are serious technical and economic drawbacks that need to be reflected on. All this added performance does not come cheap, and so its ability to swell a bill of materials might actually overshadow its ability to transfer data. Read more ..

Privacy on Edge

Bluetooth v4.0 Profiles Will Promote Proximity Sensing, Security Features

July 11th 2011

Technology - bluetooth connecting devices

Two new profiles within the latest revision of the Bluetooth specification are expected to enable a new era in proximity sensing and security, according to Nordic Semiconductor. The Bluetooth v4.0 profiles, developed within the Bluetooth SIG PUID (Personal User Interface Device) working group will enable the standards-based functionality.

The Bluetooth low energy Find Me profile targets smartphone applications and will allow users to pair small but commonly misplaced everyday objects with smartphones in order to locate them. One early example will be Bluetooth low energy key fobs that users will be able to use to find a misplaced phone or key fob. Read more ..


Privacy on Edge

U.S. Lawmakers Frustrated by Lack of Answers about Google Street View Wi-spying

July 11th 2011

Technology - g street view car varberg sweden
Google street view car in Varberg, Sweden

Perhaps you’ve seen them trundling past your house—those ruby-red Google Street View compact cars, with a tripod camera mounted on the roof. They have cruised through almost every major town in the developed world, photographing each house and posting the pictures on Google Maps.

But one year ago, following the German government’s demand for more information, Google representatives were forced to admit that the cars were gathering more than harmless pictures; they were systematically gathering data on anyone using a nearby, unsecured Wi-Fi network. If you were within range and surfing the Web without a password, Google took a little electronic snapshot of whatever you were doing. Read more ..


Digital Edge

'Smart' TVs Coming Sooner As India Phases out Analog

July 7th 2011

Computer Topics - smart tv

Internet services are becoming critical to the future of television as TV manufacturers in 2011 aim to ship more than a quarter of all flat panel TVs with some form of Internet connectivity. According to market research firm DisplaySearch, this number is forecast to grow to 138M units in 2015, accounting for 47 percent of all flat panel TVs shipped.

"The adoption of connected TV is not just taking place in developed regions," said Paul Gray, DisplaySearch Director of TV Electronics Research, in a statement. "Emerging markets often have good broadband services, and there is a thirst from consumers to get the best content available." Read more ..


The Next Edge

Microalgae Could be Texas’s Next Big Cash Crop

July 7th 2011

Science - Fernandez and TAMU microalgae bioreactor
Dr. Carlos Fernandez, TAMU Corpus Christi (credit: Rod Santa Ana)

Just as corn and peanuts stunned the world decades ago with their then-newly discovered multi-beneficial uses and applications, Texas AgriLife Research scientists in Corpus Christi think microalgae holds even more promise.

“It's a huge, untapped source of fuel, food, feed, pharmaceuticals and even pollution-busters,” said Dr. Carlos Fernandez, a crop physiologist at the Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi who is studying the physiological responses of microalgae to the environment. There are an estimated 200,000 to 800,000 species of microalgae, microscopic algae that thrive in freshwater and marine systems—but of all those species, only 35,000 species have been described. Read more ..


Digital Edge

Tiny new Antenna may Lead to a New Generation of Wireless Consumer Electronics and Wireless Devices

July 6th 2011

Science - Antenna

Engineering researchers at the University of Michigan have found a way to mass-produce antennas so small that they approach the fundamental minimum size limit for their bandwidth, or data rate, of operation.

This could lead to new generations of wireless consumer electronics and mobile devices that are either smaller or can perform more functions. The antenna is typically the largest wireless component in mobile devices. Shrinking it could leave more room for other gadgets and features, said Anthony Grbic, an associate professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.

Grbic and Stephen Forrest, a professor in the departments of Materials Science and Engineering and Physics, led the development of the hemisphere-shaped antennas, which can be manufactured with innovative imprint processing techniques that are rapid and low cost. The finished product is 1.8 times the fundamental antenna size limit established in 1948 by L.J. Chu. The dimensions of this limit vary based on an antenna's bandwidth. Read more ..


Digital Edge

Silicon Roundabout Tech Calls for IP Reform to Identify Changes needed in UK copyright law

July 6th 2011

Computer Topics - computer board

The Silicon Roundabout Tech community has issued an open letter to the UK Prime Minister, David Cameron, and key members of the Cabinet, calling for the urgent and fulsome adoption of IP reforms recommended by Professor Ian Hargreaves in his report commissioned by the Prime Minister, which was intended to identify changes needed to Britain’s copyright law framework. In the report, Professor Hargreaves states “Laws designed more than three centuries ago with the express purpose of creating economic incentives for innovation by protecting creators’ rights are today obstructing innovation and economic growth.”

The companies within the Silicon Roundabout Tech community believe that the recommendations laid out in the report would help correct that imbalance, with the open letter highlighting that the recommendations received strong support at the recent e-G8 meeting held in Paris, where they were cited as best practice for copyright law in the digital age. Read more ..


IP vs Innovation

Tech Community Calls for IP Reform in UK

July 5th 2011

Computer Topics - Russian computer user

The Silicon Roundabout Tech community has issued an open letter to the UK Prime Minister, David Cameron, and key members of the Cabinet, calling for the urgent adoption of IP reforms recommended by Professor Ian Hargreaves in his report commissioned by the Prime Minister, which was intended to identify changes needed to Britain’s copyright law framework.

In the report, Professor Hargreaves states “Laws designed more than three centuries ago with the express purpose of creating economic incentives for innovation by protecting creators’ rights are today obstructing innovation and economic growth.” Read more ..


The Nanotech Edge

Nanotubes not Toxic, Researchers Say

July 5th 2011

Science - cell and nanotubes
Cell and purified nanotubes

Nanotubes may not be intrinsically toxic, as previously reported elsewhere. Rather, contaminants mixed in during their manufacture should be held responsible for their adverse health effects, according to a University of Texas study funded by Semiconductor Research Corp (SRC).

"Carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes indeed reduce the ability of mammalian cells to grow in culture, but by using simple filtration methods we were able to remove the contaminants introduced during manufacturing," said University of Texas professor Rockford Draper. "The resulting purified nanotubes were shown to have no ill effect on mammalian cells grown in culture." Read more ..


Edge of Neuroscience

False Memories--How Easy Are They?

July 5th 2011

Social Topics - Praying to a purple sky

How easy is it to falsify memory? New research from the Weizmann Institute of Science shows that a bit of social pressure may be all that is needed. The study, which appears in the July 1, 2011 issue of Science, reveals a unique pattern of brain activity when false memories are formed—one that hints at a surprising connection between our social selves and memory.

The experiment, conducted by Prof. Yadin Dudai and research student Micah Edelson of the Institute’s Department of Neurobiology, along with Prof. Raymond Dolan and Dr. Tali Sharot of University College London, took place in four stages. In the first, volunteers watched a documentary film in small groups. Three days later, they returned to the lab individually to take a memory test, answering questions about the film. They were also asked how confident they were in their answers. Read more ..


Edge on Medicine

Floppy, Fickle Nature of RNA Yields Useful Drugs

July 1st 2011

Science - RNA polymerase

By accounting for the floppy, fickle nature of RNA, researchers at the University of Michigan and the University of California, Irvine have developed a new way to search for drugs that target this important molecule. Their work appears in the June 26 issue of Nature Chemical Biology.

Once thought to be a passive carrier of genetic information, RNA now is understood to perform a number of other vital roles in the cell, and its malfunction can lead to disease. The versatile molecule also is essential to retroviruses such as HIV, which have no DNA and instead rely on RNA to both transport and execute genetic instructions for everything the virus needs to invade and hijack its host. As more and more links to disease are discovered, the quest for drugs that target RNA is intensifying. Read more ..


Edge on Aging

Nanoparticles May Help Inhibit Alzheimer's Disease and other Neurodegenerative Disorders

June 29th 2011

Social Topics - Baby Boomer

Nanoparticles of the right dimensions and shape may be the key in combating the plaque that destroys neurons and leads to symptoms associated with Alzheimer's disease, a new report shows.

University of Michigan chemical engineering professor Nicholas Kotov says the nanotechnology means can attract and capture the longer fibrils that are known to form plaque related to neurodegenerative disorders.

"Both amyloid peptides and nanoparticles exhibit a strong ability to self-assemble into fibrils," Kotov said. "We were open to any possible effect of nanoparticles on the amyloid fibrillation. We were very pleased to see amazing inhibitory effect on amyloids fibrillation which opens the door for new approaches to the development of drugs to prevent Alzheimer's disease." By introducing tetrahedral nanoparticle that were comparable in size with growing fibrils, he discovered that the dangerous plaque readily bonded to them, and their geometry was strongly distorted. Such drastic change in shape results in complete inhibition of their further fibrillation. Read more ..


The Race for Electric Aircraft

Hybrid-Electric Airplane on Display at Paris Airshow

June 24th 2011

Transportation Topics - Boeing Diamond Aircraft's HK36 Super Dimona

Hybrid-electric drives are no longer a matter of cars only: At the Le Bourget air show, small plane manufacturer Diamond Aircraft shows what it claims to be the world's first airplane with a serial hybrid electric drive system. There are however significant differences to automotive drives.

The plane, a motor glider based on Diamond Aircraft's HK36 Super Dimona, features a serial hybrid drive - similar to an electric vehicle with range extender. The propeller is driven by a 70 kW electric motor made by Siemens.

The electric energy required to drive this motor is generated by a generator which in turn is driven by a small 30 kW Wankel combustion engine from Austro Engine. An electronic converter, also provided by Siemens, supplies the electric motor with power from the battery and the generator. Read more ..


The Medical Edge

Improved Vitamin A may Prevent Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Vision Loss

June 23rd 2011

Science - Macular degeneration

Slowing down the aggregation or “clumping” of vitamin A in the eye may help prevent vision loss caused by macular degeneration, research from Columbia University Medical Center has found.

Rather than changing the way the eye processes vitamin A, a team of researchers led by Ilyas Washington, a professor in the department of ophthalmology at Columbia’s Harkness Eye Institute, decided to focus on changing the structure of vitamin A itself. In turn, Dr. Washington and his lab have taken a novel step toward treating age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a top cause of untreatable blindness – and Stargardt’s disease, the most common cause of juvenile macular degeneration. Read more ..


Edge on Health

Heightened Immunity to Colds May Cause Asthma Flare-ups

June 22nd 2011

Health/Medicine - Childhood asthma

People often talk about “boosting” their immunity to prevent and fight colds. Nutritional supplements, cold remedies and fortified foods claim to ward off colds by augmenting the immune system.

A new University of Michigan study shows this strategy might actually be flawed. The results may hold important implications for individuals with asthma, who often experience life-threatening flare-ups due to infections with cold viruses.

The study, using a novel mouse model, shows that, in the airways, the immune response to the common cold is actually maladaptive. Mice that were engineered to have a reduced innate immune response to the common cold actually showed less - not more - airway inflammation and bronchoconstriction (airway spasm) following infection. Read more ..


Edge on the Environment

Mississippi Flooding Brings Record 'Dead Zone' to Gulf of Mexico

June 22nd 2011

Environment Topics - Dead Zone Gulf of Mexico
NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center graphic

Extreme flooding of the Mississippi River this spring is expected to result in the largest Gulf of Mexico "dead zone" on record, according to a University of Michigan aquatic ecologist and his colleagues.

The 2011 forecast, released today by the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), calls for a Gulf dead zone of between 8,500 and 9,421 square miles, an area roughly the size of New Hampshire.

The most likely 2011 scenario, according to U-Michigan's Donald Scavia, is a Gulf dead zone of at least 8,500 square miles, surpassing the current record of 8,400 square miles, set in 2002. The average over the past five years is about 6,000 square miles. Read more ..


Edge of Outer Space

X-Ray Telescope Discovers New Voracious Black Holes in Early Universe

June 21st 2011

Science - baby black hole

Using the deepest X-ray image ever taken, a University of Michigan astronomer and her colleagues have found the first direct evidence that massive black holes were common in the early universe. This discovery from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory shows that very young black holes grew more aggressively than previously thought, in tandem with the growth of their host galaxies.

By pointing Chandra at a patch of sky for over six weeks, astronomers obtained what is known as the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS). When combined with very deep optical and infrared images from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, the new Chandra data allowed astronomers to search for black holes in 200 distant galaxies, from when the universe was between about 800 million and 950 million years old. Read more ..


The Medical Edge

Non-Invasive Brain Implant may Translate Thought into Movement

June 21st 2011

Social Topics - Sullen Woman

A brain implant developed at the University of Michigan uses the body's skin like a conductor to wirelessly transmit the brain's neural signals to control a computer, and may eventually be used to reactivate paralyzed limbs.

The implant is called the BioBolt, and unlike other neural interface technologies that establish a connection from the brain to an external device such as a computer, it's minimally invasive and low power, said principal investigator Euisik Yoon, a professor in the U-M College of Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.

Currently, the skull must remain open while neural implants are in the head, which makes using them in a patient's daily life unrealistic, said Kensall Wise, the William Gould Dow Distinguished University professor emeritus in engineering. Read more ..


Urban Edge

Cockroach Allergens Explain Why Childhood Asthma is Prevalent in Urban Neighborhoods

June 16th 2011

Animals - Cucarachas

Children living on New York City blocks where asthma is common have higher levels of exposure to cockroach allergens and are more likely to be sensitized to it. In New York City, the prevalence of asthma among children entering school varies by neighborhood anywhere from 3 percent to 19 percent, and children growing up within walking distance of each other can have 2-3 fold differences in risk for having asthma.

In the first comprehensive effort to understand what drives these localized differences, researchers at Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health compared the household presence of cockroach, mouse, cat, dust mite and other allergens in neighborhoods with a high prevalence of asthma to that in low-prevalence neighborhoods. They found that cockroach, mouse and cat allergens were significantly higher in homes located in neighborhoods where asthma is more common and that children in these higher-exposure homes were more likely to be sensitized to cockroach antigens. Read more ..


The Race for Batteries

New Sodium-Manganese Oxide Rechargeable Batteries Can take the Heat off the Grid

June 15th 2011

Science - sodium maganese battery

By adding the right amount of heat, researchers have developed a method that improves the electrical capacity and recharging lifetime of sodium ion rechargeable batteries, which could be a cheaper alternative for large-scale uses such as storing energy on the electrical grid.

To connect solar and wind energy sources to the electrical grid, grid managers require batteries that can store large amounts of energy created at the source. Lithium ion rechargeable batteries -- common in consumer electronics and electric vehicles -- perform well, but are too expensive for widespread use on the grid because many batteries will be needed, and they will likely need to be large. Sodium is the next best choice, but the sodium-sulfur batteries currently in use run at temperatures above 300 degrees Celsius, or three times the temperature of boiling water, making them less energy efficient and safe than batteries that run at ambient temperatures. Read more ..


The Nano Edge

New Technique for Producing Low-Cost Nanodevices for Solar Power and Drug Delivery

June 14th 2011

Science - Titanium nanotubes
Microscopic image of imprinted titanium tubes - Weiss Lab.

A simple technique for stamping patterns invisible to the human eye onto a special class of nanomaterials provides a new, cost-effective way to produce novel devices in areas ranging from drug delivery to solar cells. The technique was developed by Vanderbilt University engineers and described in the cover article of the May issue of the journal Nano Letters. The new method works with materials that are riddled with tiny voids that give them unique optical, electrical, chemical and mechanical properties. Imagine a stiff, sponge-like material filled with holes that are too small to see without a special microscope.

For a number of years, scientists have been investigating the use of these materials – called porous nanomaterials – for a wide range of applications including drug delivery, chemical and biological sensors, solar cells and battery electrodes. There are nanoporous forms of gold, silicon, alumina, and titanium oxide, among others. Read more ..


The Race for Alt Fuel

Chips for Solar, Wind Applications See 25% Surge in 2011

June 9th 2011

Energy Topics - MOSFETs
MOSFETs

The market for semiconductors for solar and wind energy-generation systems will grow 26.5 percent in 2011, after expanding 25.4 percent in 2010 to reach revenues of $1.4 billion.

The chips are “riding on the coattails of huge increases in alternative energy installs in 2010,” said Robert Castellano, president of The Information Network. “Renewable, alternative energy technologies continue to grab the attention of private industries and world governments”

For example, the global market for photovoltaic inverters more than doubled in 2010, driven by major European markets. The top 10 suppliers of inverter systems and subsystems were European, according to the report.

The report looks at a range of alternative energy systems including geothermal, nuclear, fuel cells and other energy storage systems. Read more ..


Medical Edge

Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Research Reveals Super-drug Inactivator

June 8th 2011

Health/Medicine - tuberculosis

Researchers at the University of Michigan's Life Sciences Institute and College of Pharmacy have uncovered how tuberculosis builds drug resistance.

The discovery could provide scientists with a new direction to try to combat drug-resistant tuberculosis and to head off the continued spread of this deadly infectious disease.

Tuberculosis claims about 2 million lives worldwide each year. With the global spread of the pathogenic bacterium that currently infects one-third of the world's population, there are also strains that are resistant to most types of antibiotics that are used to treat this infection.

These strains cause so-called multi-drug resistant tuberculosis and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis. The limited number of drugs that are used to treat these resilient infections are our last line of defense, and some bacteria have already evolved resistance even to these antibiotics. The family of aminoglycoside antibiotics is among these drugs. Read more ..


Edge on Environment

Freshwater Snail Survives Mass Extinction

June 8th 2011

Animals - Ancient snail

Think "mass extinction" and you probably envision dinosaurs dropping dead in the long-ago past or exotic tropical creatures being wiped out when their rainforest habitats are decimated. But a major mass extinction took place right here in North America in the first half of the 20th century, when 47 species of mollusk disappeared after the watershed in which they lived was dammed.

Now, a population of one of those species—a freshwater limpet last seen more than 60 years ago and presumed extinct—has been found in a tributary of the heavily dammed Coosa River in Alabama's Mobile River Basin.

  Read more ..


Edge on Research

Weizmann Institute Scientists set new Record for Measuring Vibrations of a Single Atom

June 5th 2011

Science - Weizman Ins atom measurement

Weizmann Institute scientists set a new record for measuring magnetic vibrations using the spin of a single atom: 100 times more accurate than the previous record. The lab, though it may seem quiet and insulated, can be as full of background noise as a crowded train station when we’re trying to catch the announcements. Our brains can filter out the noise and focus on the message up to a certain point, but turning up the volume on the loudspeakers – improving the signal-to-noise ratio – helps as well.

Separating out the signal from the noise – increasing one while reducing the other – is so basic that much of scientific research could not take place without it. One common method, developed by the physicist Robert Dicke at Princeton University in New Jersey, is based on a principle similar to the one that enables radio broadcasts to pass through the noisy atmosphere. Read more ..


The Race for Power

Smart Grid Could Cost $476 Billion

June 5th 2011

Energy Topics - transformer farm

Costs and benefits of building a smart electric grid have more than doubled as the vision of a digital, networked power utility has expanded, according to a new report from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Sensor networks are on the rise as one of the big and under-served opportunities in the diverse terrain of the smart grid.

The EPRI report estimated the cost of upgrading the U.S. grid could range from $338 to $476 billion, up from $165 billion in a 2004 forecast. Benefit estimates have also skyrocketed to a range of $1.2 to $2 trillion, up from $660 billion estimated in 2004.

EPRI's previous estimates did not include enabling plug-in electric and hybrid vehicles, renewable energy sources, grid-scale energy storage, distributed generation and demand response applications that let consumers adjust energy use based on changing energy prices. Benefits of a smart grid include reduced carbon emissions, energy savings and reduced blackouts that cost $10 billion per event. Read more ..



See Earlier Stories 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

Copyright © 2007-2017The Cutting Edge News About Us