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The Glass Edge

Glass that Bends but Doesn't Break

January 29th 2014

glass water

Normally when you drop a drinking glass on the floor it shatters. But, in future, thanks to a technique developed in McGill’s Department of Mechanical Engineering, when the same thing happens the glass is likely to simply bend and become slightly deformed. That’s because Prof. François Barthelat and his team have successfully taken inspiration from the mechanics of natural structures like seashells in order to significantly increase the toughness of glass.

“Mollusk shells are made up of about 95 per cent chalk, which is very brittle in its pure form,” says Barthelat. “But nacre, or mother-of-pearl, which coats the inner shells, is made up of microscopic tablets that are a bit like miniature Lego building blocks, is known to be extremely strong and tough, which is why people have been studying its structure for the past twenty years.”

Previous attempts to recreate the structures of nacre have proved to be challenging, according to Barthelat. “Imagine trying to build a Lego wall with microscopic building blocks. It’s not the easiest thing in the world.” Instead, what he and his team chose to do was to study the internal ‘weak’ boundaries or edges to be found in natural materials like nacre and then use lasers to engrave networks of 3D micro-cracks in glass slides in order to create similar weak boundaries. The results were dramatic.

The researchers were able to increase the toughness of glass slides (the kind of glass rectangles that get put under microscopes) 200 times compared to non-engraved slides. By engraving networks of micro-cracks in configurations of wavy lines in shapes similar to the wavy edges of pieces in a jigsaw puzzle in the surface of borosilicate glass, they were able to stop the cracks from propagating and becoming larger. They then filled these micro-cracks with polyurethane, although according to Barthelat, this second process is not essential since the patterns of micro-cracks in themselves are sufficient to stop the glass from shattering. Read more ..

The Digital Edge

Researchers Create New Flexible, Transparent Conductor

January 28th 2014

Smart phone

University of Houston researchers have developed a new stretchable and transparent electrical conductor, bringing the potential for a fully foldable cell phone or a flat-screen television that can be folded and carried under your arm closer to reality.

Zhifeng Ren, a physicist at the University of Houston and principal investigator at the Texas Center for Superconductivity, said there long has been research on portable electronics that could be rolled up or otherwise easily transported. But a material that is transparent and has both the necessary flexibility and conductivity has proved elusive – some materials have two of the components, but until now, finding one with all three has remained difficult.

The gold nanomesh electrodes produced by Ren and his research associates provide good electrical conductivity as well as transparency and flexibility, the researchers report in a paper. The material also has potential applications for biomedical devices, said Ren, lead author on the paper. The researchers reported that gold nanomesh electrodes, produced by the novel grain boundary lithography, increase resistance only slightly, even at a strain of 160 percent, or after 1,000 cycles at a strain of 50 percent. The nanomesh, a network of fully interconnected gold nanowires, has good electrical conductivity and transparency, and has "ultrahigh stretchability," according to the paper. Read more ..

The Edge of Medicine

Electricity From Organ Movement Powers Body Implants

January 26th 2014


Someday, implanted medical devices such as a heart pacemaker may be powered by the movement of the body’s organs. Researchers have demonstrated the potential of natural organ motion to do just that.

So-called piezoelectric materials produce electrical current when they are stressed or squeezed. Imagine, for example, electricity being created by stretching a rubber band.

John Rogers and colleagues at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign have created a low-level current device by attaching piezoelectric materials to flexible ribbons of plastic. When the device was applied to moving organs, Rogers said it generated little bursts of electric current. 

“And that turns out to be a useful characteristic because when mounted on an organ like the heart, or the lung or the diaphragm, the natural motion of the organ then creates this bending motion," he said. "And that current can be stored in a battery, a tiny chip-scale battery, and then be used to power biomedical implants like cardiac pacemakers.” Read more ..

Nature's Edge

Skipping Pesticides, Farmers Control Weeds with Plants

January 25th 2014

Small Farm

A deep green field of rye swayed in a gentle breeze at the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Beltsville, Maryland, research station last May, blissfully ignorant of its impending doom.

Two-meter-tall stalks sported budding seed heads that would never ripen into amber waves of grain.

With a rattle and a screech, a tractor rolled through the field, knocking the grass flat with a giant red rolling pin. Metal bars curving around the rolling pin crushed the rye and killed it.

Left behind was a solid carpet of flattened rye. It’s the latest in chemical-free weed control, explained USDA ecologist Steve Mirsky.

“It covers the ground,” he said. “It reduces the amount of light that gets down to the soil surface. And by keeping the ground cooler, it also inhibits the germination of weeds.” And that’s important, he added, because “weeds are becoming much more of an issue in agriculture again.” Read more ..

The Medical Edge

Can Fish Oil Help Preserve Brain Cells?

January 24th 2014

Alzheimers brain cells

People with higher levels of the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil may also have larger brain volumes in old age equivalent to preserving one to two years of brain health, according to a study published in the January 22, 2014, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. Shrinking brain volume is a sign of Alzheimer’s disease as well as normal aging.

For the study, supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the levels of omega-3 fatty acids EPA+DHA in red blood cells were tested in 1,111 women who were part of the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study. Eight years later, when the women were an average age of 78, MRI scans were taken to measure their brain volume. Those with higher levels of omega-3s had larger total brain volumes eight years later. Those with twice as high levels of fatty acids (7.5 vs. 3.4 percent) had a 0.7 percent larger brain volume. Read more ..

The Future of Food

Aquaponics Offers a Vision of Sustainable Food Production for the Future

January 24th 2014

Rob Handler is about to harvest his research. Typically, that means the gigantic kale and nice-sized onions and basil he’s growing nine stories up in the Dow Environmental Science and Engineering greenhouse. Today, though, it means the key ingredient for fish tacos, to be served at a residence hall.

“We have been growing tilapa,” he says. “They are a hardy fish that grows well in a controlled environment.”

They are also the key ingredient in his aquaponics project, where fish waste fertilizes the plants and plants keep fish healthy by cleaning the water.

“It’s the same interaction that happens in the natural world,” says Handler, operations manager of the Sustainable Futures Institute at Michigan Technological University. “We are just managing things with tanks and pipes.” Read more ..

The Digital Edge

Bio-Sensors in 'Smart' Clothes May Soon Give Warning Signs of Illness

January 23rd 2014

Click to select Image

As the country settles in for yet another winter full of colds and flu, imagine if your undershirt or socks not only kept you warm but also warned you about an oncoming infection. A $400,000 National Science Foundation CAREER Award granted to Michigan State University’s Assistant Professor Peter Lillehoj may someday make that a reality.

Lillehoj will spend the next five years advancing research on innovative wearable biosensors that can be used to detect illnesses and monitor health. “This technology will lead to lightweight and unobtrusive sensing systems that can be directly integrated onto fabrics and garments,” Lillehoj said. He teaches mechanical engineering at the East Lansing-based institution. Read more ..

EnteThe Edge of Nature

Study: Plants Might Lack Traits Needed to Cope With Climate Change

January 22nd 2014

Sunrays through trees

A new study suggests that modern flowering plants, trees and agricultural crops may not have the characteristics, or the time, to respond to rapid human-induced climate change.

The report in Nature looks at how plants evolved to cope with cold in the past, but finds these same mechanisms may not provide the same defense against human-induced climate change.

Survival traits

Flowering plants lived in warm tropical climates 243 million years ago. Since then, they have spread across the planet into much harsher places. George Washington University ecologist Amy Zanne and her colleagues wanted to understand how the plants survived in a colder environment. Read more ..

The Edge of Medicine

Training Your Brain Using Neurofeedback

January 21st 2014

Brain Waves

A new brain-imaging technique enables people to ‘watch’ their own brain activity in real time and to control or adjust function in pre-determined brain regions. The study from the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital – The Neuro, McGill University and the McGill University Health Centre, published in NeuroImage, is the first to demonstrate that magnetoencephalography (MEG) can be used as a potential therapeutic tool to control and train specific targeted brain regions. This advanced brain-imaging technology has important clinical applications for numerous neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions.

MEG is a non-invasive imaging technology that measures magnetic fields generated by nerve cell circuits in the brain. MEG captures these tiny magnetic fields with remarkable accuracy and has unrivaled time resolution - a millisecond time scale across the entire brain. “This means you can observe your own brain activity as it happens,” says Dr. Sylvain Baillet, acting Director of the Brain Imaging Centre at The Neuro and lead investigator on the study. “We can use MEG for neurofeedback – a process by which people can see on-going physiological information that they aren’t usually aware of, in this case, their own brain activity, and use that information to train themselves to self-regulate. Our ultimate hope and aim is to enable patients to train specific regions of their own brain, in a way that relates to their particular condition. For example neurofeedback can be used by people with epilepsy so that they could train to modify brain activity in order to avoid a seizure.” Read more ..

The Edge of Space

Milky Way May Have Formed 'Inside-Out'

January 20th 2014

Milky Way spine structure

A breakthrough using data from the Gaia-ESO project has provided evidence backing up theoretically predicted divisions in the chemical composition of the stars that make up the Milky Way's disc – the vast collection of giant gas clouds and billions of stars that give our Galaxy its 'flying saucer' shape.

By tracking the fast-produced elements, specifically magnesium in this study, astronomers can determine how rapidly different parts of the Milky Way were formed. The research suggests that stars in the inner regions of the Galactic disc were the first to form, supporting ideas that our Galaxy grew from the inside-out.

Using data from the 8-m VLT in Chile, one of the world's largest telescopes, an international team of astronomers took detailed observations of stars with a wide range of ages and locations in the Galactic disc to accurately determine their 'metallicity': the amount of chemical elements in a star other than hydrogen and helium, the two elements most stars are made from. Read more ..

The Digital Edge

Energy Storage in Miniaturized Capacitors May Boost Green Energy Technology

January 19th 2014

computer board

The capacitors of electronic circuits function something like batteries – storing electrical charge that can be quickly dumped to power devices like camera flashes. So-called "supercapacitors" take the energy-storing abilities of capacitors a step further, storing a far greater charge in a much smaller package.

In a paper published in the journal AIP Advances researchers describe the possibility of fabricating a new class of high heat-tolerant electronics that would employ supercapacitors made from a material called calcium-copper-titanate, or CCTO, which the researchers have identified for the first time as a practical energy-storage material.

Devices using CCTO supercapacitors could compete with similar devices currently in use and could operate at much higher temperatures than standard silicon circuits, "more like the temperature in an engine," says William Stapleton. CCTO had been identified as a promising supercapacitor material before, but its development for practical applications faced unexpected hurdles. Read more ..

The Edge of Speed

Smooth Sailing: Rough Surfaces That Can Reduce Drag

January 18th 2014

Cargo Ship

From the sleek hulls of racing yachts to Michael Phelps' shaved legs, most objects that move through the water quickly are also smooth. But researchers from UCLA have found that bumpiness can sometimes be better.

"A properly designed rough surface, contrary to our intuition, can reduce skin-friction drag," said John Kim, a professor in the mechanical and aerospace engineering department at UCLA. Kim and his colleagues modeled the fluid flow between two surfaces covered with tiny ridges. They found that even in turbulent conditions the rough surface reduced the drag created by the friction of flowing water. The researchers report their findings in the journal Physics of Fluids.

The idea of using a rough surface for reduced drag had been explored before, but resulted in limited success. More recently scientists have begun experimenting with rough surfaces that are also extremely difficult to wet, a property called superhydrophobicity. In theory this means that the surfaces can trap air bubbles, creating a hydrodynamic cushion, but in practice they often lose their air cushions in chaotic flows. Read more ..

The Digital Edge

Network Neutrality Debate May Be Headed Back to FCC

January 16th 2014

computer keyboard woman hands

Despite reports to the contrary, the debate over network neutrality is far from over. An appeals court recently overturned rules that bar broadband providers from blocking or slowing Internet traffic. But the court also suggested that the Federal Communications Commission can take another shot at the issue by reconsidering how it regulates the Internet.

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit ruled that the FCC doesn’t have the authority to require broadband providers to treat online content equally -- leaving them free to manipulate online traffic or charge companies such as Netflix Inc. a premium for faster delivery.

If the FCC decides to take up the issue again, it will face some of the most formidable lobbyists in town. Three Internet service providers were among the top 20 lobbying spenders in the first nine months of 2013. Combined they hired more than 350 lobbyists, 14 of whom were former members of Congress. Read more ..

The Safety Edge

Carbon Nanotubes Promise Improved Flame-Resistant Coating

January 15th 2014

Fire Engine

Using an approach akin to assembling a club sandwich at the nanoscale, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) researchers have succeeded in crafting a uniform, multi-walled carbon-nanotube-based coating that greatly reduces the flammability of foam commonly used in upholstered furniture and other soft furnishings.

The flammability of the nanotube-coated polyurethane foam was reduced 35 percent compared with untreated foam. As important, the coating prevented melting and pooling of the foam, which generates additional flames that are a major contributor to the spread of fires.

Nationwide, fires in which upholstered furniture is the first item ignited account for about 6,700 home fires annually and result in 480 civilian deaths, or almost 20 percent of home fire deaths between 2006 and 2010, according to the National Fire Protection Association. Read more ..

The Medical Edge

Scientists Develop Cancer-Killing Protein

January 13th 2014

RUTH breast cancer detection device

Some 90 percent of people who die from cancer do so, say experts, because the disease has metastasized, or spread.  Researchers say they believe they can dramatically reduce the mortality rate with a protein combination that kills cancer cells on contact. 

Surgery, radiation and chemotherapy are often effective at treating people with a solid tumor, but once the cancer has spread and formed tiny tumors at distant sites, chances for a successful recovery are dismal.

Now researchers at Cornell University in New York have isolated a protein that goes by the acronym of TRAIL that causes metastasizing cancer cells to implode on contact. The biomedical engineers led by Mike King have attached TRAIL to immune system white blood cells so it circulates throughout the body, ready to destroy. Read more ..

The Digital Edge

Slew of New Products Unveiled at Consumer Electronics Show

January 12th 2014

3D tv

For a glimpse into the future, look no further than the International Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas.  Self-driving shuttles and solar cars are on display this year.  And while 3D printers are a relatively well-known new technology, this year’s show offers a fresh spin - 3D-printed food.

You can find just about anything at CES. Automobile enthusiasts are in luck this year.  Renault revealed an electric race car.

Audi unveiled a self-driving A7 - the cars park themselves.  Last year, the technology needed for their driver-less sedan took up the entire rear end of the car.  This year, the computer fits on a card about the size of an iPad.

Induct showed off its self-piloted shuttle, called the Navia. The company's Max LeFevre says it's also 100 percent electric. "It's a shuttle, so it's for public transport for eight to 10 passengers. It works with lasers which work kind of like a bat," he said. "It sends out beams that bounce off the walls and other things in the environment. That way the vehicle can create the map of the environment." Read more ..

The Edge of Healthcare

Stem Cells Injected into Nerve Guide Tubes Repair Injured Periferal Nerve

January 11th 2014

Docs and Tech

Using skin-derived stem cells (SDSCs) and a previously developed collagen tube designed to successfully bridge gaps in injured nerves in rat models, the research team in Milan, Italy that established and tested the procedure has successfully rescued peripheral nerves in the upper arms of a patient suffering peripheral nerve damage who would have otherwise had to undergo amputations.

"Peripheral nerve repair with satisfactory functional recovery remains a great surgical challenge, especially for severe nerve injuries resulting in extended nerve defects," said study corresponding author Dr. Yvan Torrente, of the Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation at the University of Milan. "However, we hypothesized that the combination of autologous (self-donated) SDSCs placed in collagen tubes to bridge gaps in the damaged nerves would restore the continuity of injured nerves and save from amputation the upper arms of a patient with poly-injury to motor and sensory nerves." Read more ..

Healthcare on Edge

Sex Matters for Sleeping Sickness Microbes

January 10th 2014

Research and Development Chemistry

Scientists are keeping a close eye on the mating habits of microscopic organisms, including those that cause African sleeping sickness. They say what happens between two parasites can have major consequences for humans.

Researcher Wendy Gibson said when it comes to single-cell parasites known as trypanosomes, sex matters. They had once been thought to reproduce by splitting in half. But scientists say they have a sex life.

“This is important because if they can mate, it means that they can swap genes around. For example, if you’ve got a strain of parasite that’s resistant to a drug and it mates with one that isn’t, then it can swap that gene into the one that’s sensitive to the drug. And then, of course, you’ve got a new parasite, effectively, that is also resistant to the drug. That’s dangerous,” she said. Gibson is professor of protozoology at the University of Bristol. Read more ..

The Edge of Health

Wearable ECG Recorder Measures Heart Data Together With Patient’s Physical Activity

January 9th 2014

Baby Boomer

It doesn't matter if the doctor suspects cardiac arrhythmia, myocarditis or a heart attack, whenever the heart's health is at stake the reading, recording and analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most important examination method to obtain indications of coronary diseases. Patients typically consult their doctor or remain in hospital under observation for a longer period of time after an operation. To alleviate such procedures, researchers from the Fraunhofer Institute for Photonic Microsystems IPMS in Dresden have developed a comfortable ECG recorder that reads and analyses long-term ECGs at home in everyday conditions and then transmits the results to the doctor in real-time by radio.

During an ECG the doctor only sees the temporal course of the electrical stimulation of the heart. In order to be able to draw conclusions about the function of the organ and thus find indications of possible coronary diseases he has to interpret the resulting pattern of the changes in tension of the heart. Read more ..

The Edge of Healthcare

Bio-Inspired Glue Keeps Hearts Securely Sealed

January 8th 2014

echocardiogram on child

When a child is born with a heart defect such as a hole in the heart, the highly invasive therapies are challenging due to an inability to quickly and safely secure devices inside the heart. Sutures take too much time to stitch and can cause stress on fragile heart tissue, and currently available clinical adhesives are either too toxic or tend to lose their sticking power in the presence of blood or under dynamic conditions, such as in a beating heart.

"About 40,000 babies are born with congenital heart defects in the United States annually, and those that require treatment are plagued with multiple surgeries to deliver or replace non-degradable implants that do not grow with young patients," says Jeffrey Karp, co-senior study author of a new study that may improve how surgeons treat congenital heart defects.

In the preclinical study, researchers from Boston Children's Hospital, BWH and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) developed a bio-inspired adhesive that could rapidly attach biodegradable patches inside a beating heart—in the exact place where congenital holes in the heart occur, such as with ventricular heart defects. Read more ..

The Cellular Edge

The Microscopic 'Spooky Action' of Water in Cellular Structures

January 7th 2014

In a sort of biological "spooky action at a distance," water in a cell slows down in the tightest confines between proteins and develops the ability to affect other proteins much farther away, University of Michigan researchers have discovered.

On a fundamental level, the findings show some of the complex and unexpected ways that water behaves inside cells. In a practical sense, they could provide insights into how and why proteins clump together in diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Understanding how proteins aggregate could help researchers figure out how to prevent them from doing so. Read more ..

The Healthcare Edge

Chinese Plant Ingredient Eases Chronic Pain

January 6th 2014

Boy in pain

Researchers have discovered a natural ingredient in an ancient Chinese plant that relieves chronic pain, including backache.  The compound comes from the roots of the flowering Corydalis herb, which the Chinese have used for centuries to treat pain.

The Corydalis plant is grown primarily in central eastern China. For thousands of years, people in the Asian country have harvested the plant’s roots or tubers, ground them up and boiled them in vinegar.  The concoction, often processed into a tea, was given to treat pain.  Although it is effective in easing all types of pain, including temporary and inflammatory joint pain, it may have its greatest benefit in treating long-term nagging pain, for which experts say there is no good medicine.
A researcher with the University of California Davis, Olivier Civelli, says the active compound in Corydalis identified by researchers is dehydrocorybulbine or DHCB. In animal experiments, DHCB appears to work well in easing low-level chronic pain. The plant is a member of the poppy family.

Civelli explains so-called opiod drugs like morphine are often given to treat chronic pain when they should only be prescribed for a short period of time because of their addictive properties. But DHCB, says Civelli, appears to be both effective and non-addictive in the treatment of persistent pain. Read more ..

Nature on Edge

Plants Might Lack Traits Needed to Cope With Climate Change

January 5th 2014


A new study suggests that modern flowering plants, trees, and agricultural crops may not have the characteristics, or the time, to respond to rapid human-induced climate change. The report, in Nature, looks at how plants evolved to cope with cold in the past, but finds these same mechanisms may not provide the same defense against human-induced climate change

Flowering plants lived in warm tropical climates 243 million years ago. Since then, they have spread across the planet into much harsher places. George Washington University ecologist Amy Zanne and her colleagues wanted to understand how the plants survived in a colder environment. They identified three traits that help them do that: dropping their leaves before the winter chill, narrowing the cells that transport water from the roots to the leaves, and dying back to the ground and re-sprouting from their roots or seeds in the spring. Read more ..

The Edge of Nature

How Long Have Humans Dominated Earth

January 4th 2014

T-Rex (AMNH)

Want to know when the Anthropocene started exactly? It will only cost an entirely revamped scientific effort in archaeology, ecology and paleontology, among other disciplines, at an unprecedented planetary scale, according to a new paper calling for such a scheme.

The putative start date for what scientists have begun to call the Anthropocene—a newly defined epoch in which humanity is the dominant force on the planet—ranges widely. Some argue that humans began changing the global environment about 50,000 years back, in the Pleistocene epoch, helping along if not outright causing the mass extinctions of megafauna, from mammoths to giant kangaroos, on most continents. Others date it to the emergence of agriculture some 7,000 years ago. The most definitive cases to be made coincide with the start of the industrial revolution and the dawn of the atomic age. The beginnings of burning fossil fuels to power machines in the 19th century initiated a change in the mix of atmospheric gases , and the first nuclear weapon test on July 16, 1945, spread unique isotopes across the globe. Read more ..

The Future Edge

An Asimov-Style Question For 2014: What Will Life Be Like In 2064?

January 3rd 2014

Terminator Robot

In 1964, Isaac Asimov -- the author of such science fiction classics as "I, Robot" and "The End of Eternity" -- attended the World's Fair in New York.

The fair featured a display dedicated to advances in electrical appliances since the start of the 20th century. And it left Asimov asking himself a question: what further advances would the world see 50 years on?

His resulting essay, "Visit To The World's Fair Of 2014," was in many ways prescient. Asimov, among other things, predicted a world of 3D movies, cordless home appliances, driverless cars, and screens that allow you to make video phone calls, read books, or study documents.

Other forecasts, meanwhile, have yet to be realized. Asimov predicted that by 2014, much of humanity would be living underground or underwater to maximize the use of the Earth's surface for agricultural production. He imagined robots that would tend gardens, and cars that would hover over roads rather than driving directly on them. Read more ..

The Edge of Healthcare

Patch Outperforms Holter for Prolonged Heart Rhythm Tracking

January 2nd 2014

heart patient hospital doctor health

Research by the Scripps Translational Science Institute (STSI) has found that a small adhesive wireless device worn on the chest for up to two weeks does a better job detecting abnormal and potentially dangerous heart rhythms than the Holter monitor, which is typically used for 24 hours and has been the standard of care for more than 50 years.

The findings suggest that the ZIO Service — which includes the ZIO Patch, data analysis and a diagnostic report provided by device maker iRhythm Technologies of
San Francisco — could replace the Holter monitor as the preferred method of tracking electrical heart activity in ambulatory patients.

“This is the first large prospective validation that this new technology superseded the device invented by Norman Holter in 1949,” said study senior author Eric Topol, MD, a cardiologist who directs STSI and serves as the chief academic officer of Scripps Health. “By tracking every heart beat for up to two weeks, the ZIO Service proved to be significantly more sensitive than the standard Holter, which uses multiple wires and typically is only used or tolerated for 24 hours. Read more ..

The Edge of Healthcare

Breakthrough Understanding 'Persistent Bacteria'

January 1st 2014


The mechanism by which some bacteria are able to survive antibacterial treatment has been revealed for the first time by Hebrew University of Jerusalem researchers. Their work could pave the way for new ways to control such bacteria.

In addition to the known phenomenon by which some bacteria achieve resistance to antibiotics through mutation, there are other types of bacteria, known as "persistent bacteria," which are not resistant to the antibiotics but simply continue to exist in a dormant or inactive state while exposed to antibacterial treatment. These bacteria later "awaken" when that treatment is over, resuming their detrimental tasks, presenting a dilemma as to how to deal with them.

Until now, it had been known that there is a connection between these kind of bacteria and the naturally occurring toxin HipA in the bacteria, but scientists did not know the cellular target of this toxin and how its activity triggers dormancy of the bacteria. Read more ..

The Edge of Healthcare

Laser Scanner Detects Malaria Infections in Seconds

December 31st 2013

mosquito biting

Researchers have developed the first non-invasive method of detecting malaria infection using a laser beam scanner. The painless test appears to be 100 percent accurate and does not require using any blood.

Currently, the gold standard of malaria testing is examining a blood smear under the microscope for evidence of the deadly parasite. A diagnosis requires trained technicians, expensive equipment and time, things that are not always available in poorer and more remote parts of the world.

But so-called “vapor nanobubble” technology would eliminate the need to draw any blood. It only requires an individual to place a finger on a laser device, according to Dmitri Lopotko, a researcher with the department of biochemistry and cell biology at Rice University in Houston, Texas.

“We shine a very short light pulse through the skin.  And this light pulse is absorbed only by malaria parasites because of the wavelength we use. And in response to this short light pulse, the parasite literally explodes,” he said. Read more ..

Automotive Edge

Sales of Stop-Start Vehicles Will Grow to 55 Million Annually in Nine Years

December 30th 2013

Worldwide sales of Stop-start vehicles (SSVs) will grow from 8.8 million in 2013 to 55.4 million in 2022 according to a new report from market intelligence analyst Navigant Research.

SSVs, which eliminate idling by shutting off the engine when the vehicle is stationary and restarting it automatically when it is time to move, offer a portion of the fuel economy benefits of hybrid vehicles at a fraction of the cost premium.

Having proved popular with consumers because of its better fuel economy and the engine silence when it is stopped at an intersection, stop-start technology is seen as a low-cost and highly beneficial investment for auto manufacturers. Read more ..

The Moon on Edge

Our First Exomoon May Have Been Sighted

December 29th 2013

full moon

Exoplanets are almost old hat to astronomers, who by now have found more than 1,000 such worlds beyond the solar system. The next frontier is exomoons—moons orbiting alien planets—which are much smaller, fainter and harder to find. Now astronomers say they may have found an oddball system of a planet and a moon floating free in the galaxy rather than orbiting a star.

The system showed up in a study using micro lensing, which looks for the bending of starlight due to the gravitational pull of an unseen object between a star and Earth. In this case the massive object might well be a planet and a moon. But the signal is not very clear, the researchers acknowledge, and could instead represent a dim star and a lightweight planet. “An alternate star-plus-planet model fits the data almost as well” as the planet-plus-moon explanation, the scientists reported in a paper that was posted this week on the preprint site arXiv. The study has not yet been peer-reviewed.

"I was excited by this paper," says astronomer Jean Schneider of the Paris Observatory, who was not involved in the research. Exomoons have "become fashionable these days," he adds, and are one of his personal "holy grails." Schneider wrote a paper in 1999 on how to detect exomoons using an alternative method, called transiting. (The transit technique looks for the dimming of a star's light caused when a planet or moon passes in front of the star from Earth's perspective). Read more ..

The Digital Edge

Amazing Race Toward Autonomous Car Design

December 29th 2013

driving dashboard simulator

Self-driving cars are no longer just about Google cars. Carmakers aren't pontificating or debating the pros and cons of self-driving cars, either. Daimler is already using self-driving as a way to differentiate from other luxury cars, as it competes with its German rival BMW.

Just as much as car OEMs are under pressure to come up with their own autonomous car platforms, automotive chip suppliers such as Freescale, Infineon Technologies, and NXP Semiconductors are similarly feeling the heat.

The second half of 2014 is a sort of consensus deadline for leading car OEMs to make final decisions on architecture and technologies for semi-autonomous car platforms. By then, Freescale says, it will be working closely with OEMs, contributing its ideas and making proposals, hopeful for design wins for key technologies on the platform. Read more ..

The Research Edge

Ten Most Important Scientific Advances of 2013

December 28th 2013

The cancer research community experienced a sea change in 2013 as a strategy, decades in the making, finally cemented its potential. Promising results emerged from clinical trials of cancer immunotherapy, in which treatments target the body's immune system rather than tumors directly. According to a news release, the editors of Science magazine believe that new treatments to push T cells and other immune cells to combat cancer are now displaying enough promise to top their list of the year's most important scientific breakthroughs.

This annual list of groundbreaking scientific achievements also includes major breakthroughs in solar cell technologies, genome-editing techniques and vaccine design strategies. Read more ..

The Automotive Edge

Avoid Automobile Collisions with Emergency Steer Assistant

December 28th 2013


If in road traffic suddenly an obstacle appears in front of the vehicle, drivers have to react within fractions of a second. In many cases, the natural response time of human drivers is too long and a collision renders unavoidable. The European interactiVe project (Accidence avoidance by active intervention for Intelligent Vehicles) now has developed an assistant system aiming at avoiding or at least mitigating such collisions.

The German Centre for Aviation and Astronautics (DLR) has tested an Emergency Steer Assistant developed within the scope of the interactiVe project. The system supports the driver in the case of an imminent crash by automatic steering motions. "If in urban traffic suddenly the door of a parking vehicle is opened of on the highway a slower vehicle suddenly merges in front of you, such an emergency steer assistant can help to avoid a collision", says professor Karsten Lemmer from the DLR Institute of Traffic Systems Technology. Read more ..

The Digital Edge

SONY carves a New Niche in Wearable Electronics with SmartWig

December 27th 2013

Sony has filed a patent for the invention of the smartwig, as companies around the world rush to try and carve out a position in wearable electronics.

U.S. Patent application 2013/0311132 is for a "wearable computing device," comprising a wig, a sensor, a processor and communications link to another processor. And they have to be hidden in the wig during use! The patent was authored by Hiroaki Tobita in Paris and assigned to Sony.

While it might seem that the SmartWig – electronics hidden in human or horsehair on top of the head – is such an obvious thing as to be unworthy of being patentable, the application makes great claims. For example, it is claimed that actuators in contact with the head under the wig could vibrate to provide warnings to the wearer, or to guide them to change direction in the specific case of the "NavigationWig." With the addition of a camera in the front of the wig to detect obstacles and traffic the vibrational prompts could be used to help blind people trying to cross the road, the patent filing claims. Read more ..

The Race for Solar

Future Organic Light Emitting Diodes will come Straight from the Printer

December 27th 2013

OLEDS and solar cells to come straight from the printer in future
Scientists at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP in Potsdam-Golm have been working together with mechanical engineering company MBRAUN to develop a production facility capable of creating OLEDs as well as organic solar cells on an industrial scale.

The innovation makes it now possible to print OLEDs and solar cells from solutions containing luminescent organic molecules and absorptive molecules respectively, which makes printing them onto a carrier film straightforward. Usually, printing them involves vaporizing small molecules in a high vacuum, making it an expensive process.

Scientists had previously only ever used various printing technologies to design components on a laboratory scale. They can now produce larger sample series – and this is advantageous for the applications that feature large illuminated surfaces and information systems that require tailored solutions produced in relatively small numbers. Read more ..

The Edge of Healthcare

Scientists Create Artificial Joint Cartilage

December 27th 2013


 For millions of people around the world, arthritis is an unfortunate - and painful - part of getting older. As the condition progresses, it can require surgery to replace with plastic or metal hardware the worn cartilage that no longer cushions the joint. But these artificial joints are not ideal, so researchers using innovative technologies are working to create an artificial cartilage that’s more like the real thing. 

Arthritis is a very painful condition. The operation to treat it is not much better.  Anybody who has had a knee, shoulder or hip joint replaced knows that artificial metal or plastic joints also can be painful and limit movement.  But coming up with a better alternative for eroded cartilage - a substitute that’s both load-bearing and cushioning at the same time - has been a challenge.

Farshid Guilak, professor of mechanical engineering and orthopedic surgery at Duke University in North Carolina, is part of a team working to create a strong yet softer, more supple replacement for worn away cartilage. He foresees that implanting this synthetic cartilage would be a much less radical operation than current joint surgery. “So, just basically replacing the part that is worn out, not cutting out both sides of the joint and putting a lot of metal in there," said Guilak. Read more ..

Ancient Days

Millenial Vineyards Found in Spain

December 26th 2013

Zaballa (Iruña de Oca) was a medieval settlement in northern Spain that was abandoned in the 15th century. The building of a manor monastery at the heart of it undermined the organisation of the village in the 10th century with the creation of a highly significant rent-seeking system; it was later turned into a specialized estate in the hands of local lords who, under the auspices of the economic boom in towns such as Vitoria-Gasteiz, tried to maximize their profits. In the end, the departure of its settlers towards the towns caused its abandonment.

Today, archaeologists from the Univeridad del Pais Vasco-Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea (University of the Basque Country) in Spain are endeavouring to reconstruct and salvage Basque rural heritage by studying deserted settlements like Zaballa. The Basque Country, also known as Euzkadi, is among the various autonomous regions of Spain, which include Andalucia, Catalonia, and Asturias. Read more ..

The Edge of Healthcare

Male Hormone Reduces Effectiveness of Flu Vaccine

December 25th 2013

nurse w/stethoscope

Researchers have known for some time that men tend to experience more severe influenza and get sicker from microbial infections than women.  A new study suggests it may be that immune responses in men are affected by the male hormone testosterone.

In a small study involving 53 women and 34 men, researchers at Stanford University in California measured their antibody response to the 2008-2009 seasonal flu vaccine.  Vaccines stimulate the production of antibodies, which are the immune system’s first line of defense against microbial invaders. As predicted by previous research, the vaccine stimulated a stronger antibody response in women than men.

Lynda Chiodetti runs the National Institutes of Health section that helped fund the study. She said the investigators identified a cluster of genes in the male participants that is associated with lipid or fat metabolism. Many of those genes are regulated by testosterone.  Read more ..

The Edge of Nature

What Sharks, Honeybees and Humans Have in Common

December 24th 2013


A research team led by UA anthropologist David Raichlen has found that the Hadza tribe’s movements while foraging can be described by a mathematical pattern called a Lévy walk – a pattern that also is found in the movements of many other animals.

A mathematical pattern of movement called a Lévy walk describes the foraging behavior of animals from sharks to honey bees, and now for the first time has been shown to describe human hunter-gatherer movement as well. The study, led by University of Arizona anthropologist David Raichlen, was published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The Lévy walk pattern appears to be ubiquitous in animals, similar to the golden ratio, phi, a mathematical ratio that has been found to describe proportions in plants and animals throughout nature. “Scientists have been interested in characterizing how animals search for a long time,” said Raichlen, “so we decided to look at whether human hunter-gatherers use similar patterns.” Read more ..

Education on Edge

No Math Gene: Learning Mathematics Takes Practice

December 23rd 2013

school kids

New research at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Trondheim could have an effect on how math is taught.

If you want to be really good at all types of math, you need to practice them all. You can't trust your innate natural talent to do most of the job for you.

This might seem obvious to some, but it goes against the traditional view that if you are good at math, it is a skill that you are simply born with.

Professor Hermundur Sigmundsson at Department of Psychology is one of three researchers involved in the project. The results have been published in Psychological Reports.

The researchers tested the math skills of 70 Norwegian fifth graders, aged 10.5 years on average. Their results suggest that it is important to practice every single kind of math subject to be good at all of them, and that these skills aren't something you are born with. Read more ..

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